Structural Organization In Animals
Tissues: Tissues are group of cells which is made to carry out specific task in a multicellular animal.
Group of different tissues make an organ, which in turn make an organ system. Thus this is a gradual step towards division of labour in multicellular organisms. A particular organ is meant to do a specific task and a particular organ system is responsible for a complex set of tasks.
Based on structure tissues are different and are broadly classified into four types :
(iii) Muscular and
Epithelial tissues provide covering to the inner and outer lining of various organs. The cells of epithelial tissues are compactly packed with little intercellular matrix.
There are two types of epithelial tissues:
(a) Simple Epithelium:- Simple epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells and functions as a lining for body cavities, ducts, and tubes.
(b) Compound Epithelium:- The compound epithelium consists of two or more cell layers and has protective function as it does in our skin. They cover the dry surface of the skin, the moist surface of buccal cavity, pharynx, inner lining of ducts of salivary glands and of pancreatic ducts.
On the basis of structural modification of the cells, simple epithelium is further divided into three types. These are:
(a) Squamous:- The squamous epithelium is made of a single thin layer of flattened cells with irregular boundaries. They are found in the walls of blood vessels and air sacs of lungs and are involved in a functions like forming a diffusion boundary.
(b) Cuboidal:- The cuboidal epithelium is composed of a single layer of cube-like cells. This is commonly found in ducts of glands and tubular parts of nephrons in kidneys and its main functions are secretion and absorption. The epithelium of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of nephron in the kidney has microvilli.
(c) Columnar: The columnar epithelium is composed of a single layer of tall and slender cells. Their nuclei are located at the base. Free surface may have microvilli. They are found in the lining of stomach and intestine and help in secretion and absorption. If the columnar or cuboidal cells bear cilia on their free surface they are called ciliated epithelium. Their function is to move particles or mucus in a specific direction over the epithelium. They are mainly present in the inner surface of hollow organs like bronchioles and fallopian tubes.
Connective tissues are most abundant and widely distributed in the body of complex animals. Function of connective tissues is linking and supporting other tissues/organs of the body. In all connective tissues except blood, the cells secrete fibres of structural proteins called collagen or elastin. The fibres provide strength, elasticity and flexibility to the tissue. These cells also secrete modified polysaccharides, which accumulate between cells and fibres and act as matrix (ground substance).
Connective tissues are classified into three types:
1. Loose Connective Tissue: Loose connective tissue has cells and fibres loosely arranged in a semi-fluid ground substance, for example, areolar tissue present beneath the skin. Often it serves as a support framework for epithelium. It contains fibroblasts (cells that produce and secrete fibres), macrophages and mast cells. Adipose tissue is another type of loose connective tissue located mainly beneath the skin. The cells of this tissue are specialised to store fats. The excess of nutrients which are not used immediately are converted into fats and are stored in this tissue.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: Fibres and fibroblasts are compactly packed in the dense connective tissues. Orientation of fibres show a regular or irregular pattern and are called dense regular and dense irregular tissues. In the dense regular connective tissues, the collagen fibres are present in rows between many parallel bundles of fibres. Tendons, which attach skeletal muscles to bones and ligaments which attach one bone to another are examples of this tissue. Dense irregular connective tissue has fibroblasts and many fibres (mostly collagen) that are oriented differently. This tissue is present in the skin.
3. Specialised Connective Tissue: Cartilage, bones and blood are various types of specialized connective tissues.
Cartilage: The intercellular material of cartilage is solid and pliable and resists compression. Cells of this tissue (chondrocytes) are enclosed in small cavities within the matrix secreted by them. Most of the cartilages in vertebrate embryos are replaced by bones in adults. Cartilage is present in the tip of nose, outer ear joints, between adjacent bones of the vertebral column, limbs and hands in adults.
Bones: Bones have a hard and non-pliable ground substance rich in calcium salts and collagen fibres which give bone its strength. It is the main tissue that provides structural frame to the body. Bones support and protect softer tissues and organs. The bone cells (osteocytes) are present in the spaces called lacunae. Limb bones, such as the long bones of the legs, serve weight-bearing functions. They also interact with skeletal muscles attached to them to bring about movements. The bone marrow in some bones is the site of production of blood cells.
Blood: Blood is a fluid connective tissue containing plasma, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. It is the main circulating fluid that helps in the transport of various substances.
Muscle: Each muscle is made of many long, cylindrical fibres arranged in parallel arrays. These fibres are composed of numerous fine fibrils, called myofibrils. Muscle fibres contract (shorten) in response to stimulation, then relax (lengthen) and return to their uncontracted state in a coordinated fashion. Their action moves the body to adjust to the changes in the environment and to maintain the positions of the various parts of the body. In general, muscles play an active role in all the movements of the body.
Muscles are of three types:
2. Smooth, and
Skeletal Muscle: Skeletal muscle tissue is closely attached to skeletal bones. In a typical muscle such as the biceps, striated (striped) skeletal muscle fibres are bundled together in a parallel fashion. A sheath of tough connective tissue encloses several bundles of muscle fibres.
Smooth Muscle: The smooth muscle fibres taper at both ends (fusiform) and do not show striations. Cell junctions hold them together and they are bundled together in a connective tissue sheath. The wall of internal organs such as the blood vessels, stomach and intestine contains this type of muscle tissue. Smooth muscles are ‘involuntary’ as their functioning cannot be directly controlled.
Cardiac Muscle: Cardiac muscle tissue is a contractile tissue present only in the heart. Cell junctions fuse the plasma membranes of cardiac muscle cells and make them stick together. Communication junctions (intercalated discs) at some fusion points allow the cells to contract as a unit, i.e., when one cell receives a signal to contract, its neighbours are also stimulated to contract.
Neurons, the unit of neural system are excitable cells. The neuroglial cell which constitute the rest of the neural system protect and support neurons. Neuroglia make up more than onehalf the volume of neural tissue in our body. When a neuron is suitably stimulated, an electrical disturbance is generated which swiftly travels along its plasma membrane. Arrival of the disturbance at the neuron’s endings, or output zone, triggers events that may cause stimulation or inhibition of adjacent neurons and other cells and thereby transmitting neural signals to different parts of the body.
ORGAN AND ORGAN SYSTEM
The basic tissues mentioned above organise to form organs which in turn associate to form organ systems in the multicellular organisms. Such an organisation is essential for more efficient and better coordinated activities of millions of cells constituting an organism. Each organ in our body is made of one or more type of tissues. For example, our heart consists of all the four types of tissues, i.e., epithelial, connective, muscular and neural.