Structural Organization In Animals
Question 1. Answer in one word or one line.
(i) Give the common name of Periplanata americana.
(ii) How many spermathecae are found in earthworm?
Answer: 2 spermathecae are found in earthworm.
(iii) What is the position of ovaries in cockroach?
Answer: 2 large ovaries are found lying laterally in the 2nd to 6th abdominal segment.
(iv) How many segments are present in the abdomen of cockroach?
Answer: The abdomen of cockroach consists of 10 segments.
(v) Where do you find Malpighian tubules?
Answer: Malpighian tubules are the main excretory organs of the cockroach.
2. Answer the following:
(i) What is the function of nephridia?
Answer: Nephridia is the excretory organ of the earthworm or pheretima.
(ii) How many types of nephridia are found in earthworm based on their location?
Answer: There are of three types of nephridia in the earthworm:
(i) septal nephridia, present on both the sides of intersegmental septa of segment 15 to the last that open into intestine,
(ii) integumentary nephridia, attached to lining of the body wall of segment 3 to the last that open on the body surface and
(iii) pharyngeal nephridia, present as three paired tufts in the 4th, 5th and 6th segments.
3. Draw a labelled diagram of alimentary canal of a cockroach.
Question 4. Distinguish between the followings
(a) Prostomium and peristomium
Answer: Prostomium is the frontmost part of the earthworm. This is not called a true segment as it doesn’t contain typical organs of an annelida. Peristomium is from where the true segment of the earthworm body starts.
(b) Septal nephridium and pharyngeal nephridium
Answer: Septal nephridia, present on both the sides of intersegmental septa of segment 15 to the last that open into intestine,
Pharyngeal nephridia, present as three paired tufts in the 4th, 5th and 6th segments.
Both are same structurally and functionally.
Question 5. What are the cellular components of blood?
Answer: Red Blood Cells And White Blood Cells are the cellular components of the blood.
Question 6. What are the following and where do you find them in animal body.
Answer: Are cells of cartilage
Answer: It is the tail like structure of a neuron.
(c) Ciliated epithelium:
Answer: Ciliated epithelium is found in the inner lining of bronchioles. Cilia help trap and clear dust foreign particles.
Question 7. Describe various types of epithelial tissues with the help of labelled diagrams.
Answer: Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial tissues provide covering to the inner and outer lining of various organs. The cells of epithelial tissues are compactly packed with little intercellular matrix.
There are two types of epithelial tissues:
(a) Simple Epithelium: Simple epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells and functions as a lining for body cavities, ducts, and tubes.
(b) Compound Epithelium. The compound epithelium consists of two or more cell layers and has protective function as it does in our skin. They cover the dry surface of the skin, the moist surface of buccal cavity, pharynx, inner lining of ducts of salivary glands and of pancreatic ducts.
On the basis of structural modification of the cells, simple epithelium is further divided into three types. These are:
(a) Squamous: The squamous epithelium is made of a single thin layer of flattened cells with irregular boundaries. They are found in the walls of blood vessels and air sacs of lungs and are involved in a functions like forming a diffusion boundary.
(b) Cuboidal: The cuboidal epithelium is composed of a single layer of cube-like cells. This is commonly found in ducts of glands and tubular parts of nephrons in kidneys and its main functions are secretion and absorption. The epithelium of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of nephron in the kidney has microvilli.
(c) Columnar: The columnar epithelium is composed of a single layer of tall and slender cells. Their nuclei are located at the base. Free surface may have microvilli. They are found in the lining of stomach and intestine and help in secretion and absorption. If the columnar or cuboidal cells bear cilia on their free surface they are called ciliated epithelium. Their function is to move particles or mucus in a specific direction over the epithelium. They are mainly present in the inner surface of hollow organs like bronchioles and fallopian tubes.
Question 8. Distinguish between
(a) Simple epithelium and compound epithelium
Answer: Simple epithelium is composed of one layer of cells, while compound epithelium is composed of more than one layer of cells.
(b) Cardiac muscle and striated muscle
Answer: Cardiac muscles are present in the cells of heart only. They have contractile property which helps in the pumping action of the heart. Striated muscles are present near articulatory joints. Their role is to facilitate movement of organs like hands and feet.
(c) Dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues
Answer: Dense Connective Tissue: Fibres and fibroblasts are compactly packed in the dense connective tissues. Orientation of fibres show a regular or irregular pattern and are called dense regular and dense irregular tissues. In the dense regular connective tissues, the collagen fibres are present in rows between many parallel bundles of fibres. Tendons, which attach skeletal muscles to bones and ligaments which attach one bone to another are examples of this tissue. Dense irregular connective tissue has fibroblasts and many fibres (mostly collagen) that are oriented differently. This tissue is present in the skin.
(d) Adipose and blood tissue
Answer: Adipose tissue is a type of loose connective tissue located mainly beneath the skin. The cells of this tissue are specialised to store fats. The excess of nutrients which are not used immediately are converted into fats and are stored in this tissue.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue. The main function of blood is to transport gases, nutrients and waste products in the body.
(e) Simple gland and compound gland
Answer: Simple gland is composed of single cell, while compound gland is composed of multiple cells.
Question 9. Mark the odd one in each series:
(a) Areolar tissue; blood; neuron; tendon
Answer: Neuron is not a connective tissue
(b) RBC; WBC; platelets; cartilage
Answer: Cartilage is not part of blood
(c) Exocrine; endocrime; salivary gland; ligament
Answer: Ligament is not part of gland
(d) Maxilla; mandible; labrum; antennae
Answer: Antennae is not a masticating part of cockroach
10. Match the terms in column I with those in column II:
Column I Column II
(a) Compound epithelium (i) Alimentry canal
(b) Compound eye (ii) Cockroach
(c) Septal nephridia (iii) Skin
(c) Septal nephridia (iii) Skin
(e) Typhlosole (v) Earthworm
(f) Osteocytes (vi) Phallomere
(g) Genitalia (vii) Bone
(a) Compound Epithelium (iii) Skin
(b) Compound Eye (iv) Mosaic Vision
(c) Septal Nephridia (v) Earthworm
(d) Open Circulatroy System (ii) Cockroach
(e) Typhlosole (i) Alimentary Canal of Earthworm
(f) Osteocytes (vii) Bone
(g) Genitalia (vi) Phallomere
Question 11. Mention breifly about the circulatory system of earthworm
Answer: Blood Vascular System: Pheretima exhibits a closed type of blood vascular system, consisting of blood vessels, capillaries and heart. Due to closed circulatory system, blood is confined to the heart and blood vessels. Contractions keep blood circulating in one direction. Smaller blood vessels supply the gut, nerve cord, and the body wall. Blood glands are present on the 4th, 5th and 6th segments. They produce blood cells and haemoglobin which is dissolved in blood plasma. Blood cells are phagocytic in nature. Earthworms lack specialised breathing devices. Respiratory exchange occurs through moist body surface into their blood stream.
Question 12. Draw a neat diagram of digestive system of frog.
Question 13. Mention the function of the following
(a) Ureters in frog
Answer: The ureters act as urinogenital duct which opens into the cloaca. In females the ureters and oviduct open seperately in the cloaca.
(b) Malpighian tubules
Answer: Excretion is performed by Malpighian tubules in cockroaches. Each tubule is lined by glandular and ciliated cells. They absorb nitrogenous waste products and convert them into uric acid which is excreted out through the hindgut.
(c) Body wall in earthworm
Answer: The body wall of the earthworm is covered externally by a thin non-cellular cuticle below which is the epidermis, two muscle layers (circular and longitudinal) and an innermost coelomic epithelium. The epidermis is made up of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells which contain secretory gland cells.