Class 8 Science

Natural Resources


Petroleum is a dark and viscous liquid with unpleasant smell. It comes from oil wells.

Formation of Petroleum

Table of Contents

Refining of Petroleum

Crude oil is not very useful rather it needs to be refined to obtain useful products. Petroleum (from oil wells) is sent to oil refineries for processing. Petroleum is subjected to fractional distillation; in oil refinery. Various constituents of petroleum get separated during this process. The following table shows the constituents of petroleum and their uses.

Constituent of petroleumUses
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)Fuel for home and industry.
PetrolFuel for motor vehicles, aviation fuel, solvent for dry cleaning.
KeroseneFuel for stoves, lamps and jet aircrafts.
DieselFuel for heavy motor vehicles, generator and rail engine
Lubricating oilLubrication
Paraffin waxOintment, candle, Vaseline, etc.
BitumenPaint, road surfacing

Natural Gas:

Natural gas is found along with petroleum in oil wells. Natural gas is used as fuel and as raw materials for making fertilizers. For being used as fuel, natural gas is stored under high pressure. Natural gas which is stored under high pressure is called Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is a cleaner fuel than petrol or diesel.

Natural gas is supplied from oil wells to different locations through a network of pipelines. The HVJ (Hazira – Vijaipur – Jagdishpur) Pipeline is an important network of pipelines to supply natural gas. It starts from Gujarat (Hazira) and ends in Uttar Pradesh (Jadishpur).

Drawbacks of Fossil Fuels:

PCRA (Petroleum Conservation Research Association) recommendations for conservation of petrol and diesel: