Synthetic Fibres and Plastics
Short Answer Type
Question 1: Write some salient features of rayon.
Answer: Some salient features of rayon are as follows:
- Rayon is similar to silk but is cheaper than silk. Hence, rayon is also called ‘poor man’s silk’.
- Rayon can be dyed in various colours.
- Rayon is usually mixed with cotton to make bedsheet and dress materials.
Question 2: What are the characteristics of synthetic fibres?
Answer: Following are the characteristics of synthetic fibres:
- They are less expensive.
- They are readily available.
- They can be easily washed.
- They are easy to maintain.
Question 3: Plastic bags create which kinds of problems?
Answer: Following problems are created by plastic bags:
- Plastic bag keeps on accumulating in the environment.
- It chokes drains.
- A stray animal can die if it accidentally swallows plastic bag.
Question 4: Write a short note on acrylic.
Answer: Acrylic resembles wool and hence is also called synthetic wool. It is cheaper and more durable than wool, and is easier to wash and maintain. Acryclic is less expensive, easily available, easy to wash and is easy to maintain.
Question 5: What is the difference between nylon and rayon?
|It was the first synthetic fibre.||It was the first truly synthetic fibre.|
|Rayon is made from wood pulp.||Nylon is made from coal, water and air.|
|Rayon is used for making curtains, bedsheets, etc.||Nylon is used for making socks, rope, toothbrush, parachute, etc.|
Long Answer Type
Question 1: Explain the discovery and unique features of nylon.
Answer: Nylon was made in 1931. The term ‘nylon’ has been derived from letters of ‘New York’ and ‘London’. No ingredient from plant or animal source was used in making nylon, as it is made from coal, water and air. Hence, nylon is called the first truly synthetic fibre.
- Nylon is strong, light and elastic.
- It is lustrous and easy to wash.
- Nylon is used in many articles; like socks, bags, toothbrush, rope, sneakers, parachute, etc.
- For the same thickness, a nylon thread is stronger than a steel wire.
Question 2: Explain different types of plastic and their usages.
Answer: Different types of plastic and their usages are as follows:
- Thermoplastic: Some plastics easily get deformed on heating, and can be easily bent and reshaped by heating. They are called thermoplastic. Polythene and PVC are examples of thermoplastic. Thermoplastic is used for making combs, toys, buckets, mugs, etc.
- Thermosetting Plastic: Some plastics do not get deformed on heating, and cannot be re-molded into a new shape. Such plastics are called thermosetting plastic. Bakelite and melamine are examples of thermosetting plastic. Bakelite is used for making electrical switches and switchboards because it is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Melamine is resistant to fire and is hence used for making utensils.
Question 3: What are the reasons for popularity of plastic?
Answer: Following are the reasons for popularity of plastic:
- Plastic is non-reactive: Unlike iron; plastic does not react with air to form rust. Due to this, plastic has replaced iron from many articles. Plastic does not react with many chemicals, and so, plastic containers are used for keeping many materials and chemicals.
- Plastic is light, strong and durable: Plastic is lightweight, strong and durable. Plastic chairs have replaced wooden chairs in most of the households. Wooden crates have been replaced by plastic crates; for keeping milk and cold drinks. Most of the warehouses now use plastic pellets for keeping goods.
- Plastic is poor conductor of heat and electricity: Because of poor conductivity to heat and electricity; plastic is used for making switches and many components of electrical appliances. Handles of utensils are made of plastic because such handles do not heat up.