Class 8 History

India After Independence

NCERT Solution

Question 1: Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.

Answer: The three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced are as follows:

  • Rehabilitation of a large number of refugees.
  • Assimilation of princely states.
  • Ensuring the unity of a country which is full of diversity.

Question 2: What was the role of the Planning Commission?

Answer: The Planning Commission was to formulate policies which would guide the economic development. Productivity and employment opportunities were to be increased through proper implementation of those policies.

Question 3: Fill in the blanks:

  • Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _________, _________ and _________.

    Answer: taxes, defence and foreign affairs
  • Subjects on the Concurrent List were _________ and _________.

    Answer: forests and agriculture
  • Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a _________ _________ model.

    Answer: Mixed economy
  • The death of _________ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.

    Answer: Potti Sriramulu

Question 4: State whether true or false:

  • At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.
  • The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party.
  • In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.
  • The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of heavy industry.

Answer: (a) True, (b) False, (c) False, (d) True

Question 5: What did Dr Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics we will have equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?

Answer: By political equality, Dr. Ambedkar meant the universal adult franchise which gave equal rights to all citizens. By socioeconomic inequality, he meant the income disparities among people.

Question 6: After Independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?

Answer: The partition of the country along communal lines changed the mindset of the nationalist leaders. They wanted to prevent further divisions in the country on sectarian lines.

Question 7: Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.

Answer: Some leaders believed that English should be done away with and Hindi should be promoted as the national language. But this idea was opposed by the leaders from non-Hindi areas. They did not want an imposition on Hindi on the people of those areas. Finally, it was decided that while Hindi would be the ‘official language’; English would be used for communication among various states.

Question 8: How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after Independence?

Answer: Removing poverty and building a modern technical and industrial base were important objectives for the new nation. The Planning Commission was set up in 1950 to plan and execute policies for economic development.