Class 8 Geography
Industry: An economic activity which is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or provision of services is called an industry.
Classification of Industry
On the basis of raw materials, industry can be categorized as follows:
- Agro-based Industries: When plants and animal based products are used as raw materials, it is called agro-based industry, e.g. cotton textiles, leather, edible oil, etc.
- Mineral-based Industries: When minerals are the raw materials, it is called mineral-based industry, e.g. iron and steel, petrochemical, etc. The products of mineral-based industry feed other industries.
- Marine-based Industries: When products from seas and oceans are used as raw materials, it is called marine-based industry, e.g. sea food industry.
- Forest-based Industries: When forest produce are the raw materials, it is called forest-based industry, e.g. paper, furniture, pharmaceutical, safety matches, etc.
On the basis of size, i.e. the amount of capital invested, industries can be classified as follows:
- Cottage Industry: When products are manufactured by hand and by artisans, it is called cottage industry. Basket weaving, pottery, etc. are examples of cottage industry. A small amount of capital is invested in small scale industries.
- Large Scale Industry: When a high amount of capital is invested, it is called large scale industry. Large scale industry also produces in large volumes, e.g. automobile industry.
On the basis of ownership, industries can be classified as follows:
- Private Sector: These are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals, e.g. TATA and Reliance.
- Public Sector: These are owned by the government or government agencies, e.g. SAIL, HAL, etc.
- Joint Sector: These are jointly owned by the government and private owners, e.g. Delhi Metro, Maruti, etc.
- Cooperative Sector: When workers or producers join together to form a company in which profit and workload are equally shared, it is called a cooperative, e.g. Amul, Lijjat, Mother Dairy, etc.
Factors Affecting Location of Industries
Availability of raw materials, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market are the main factors which affect the location of an industry. A place where some or all of these factors are available is an ideal place for the growth of industries. Sometimes, the government provides incentives; in the form of subsidized power and tax holidays; to develop industries in a particular location. Industrialization usually leads to development and growth of towns and cities.
- Input: Raw materials, labour, land, transport, power and other infrastructure are the inputs of industry.
- Processes: A variety of activities which lead to transformation of raw materials into finished products.
- Output: Products or services are the outputs of industry.
Major industrial regions of the world are; eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia. Major industrial regions are usually located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields.
Important industrial regions of India are as follows:
- Mumbai-Pune cluster
- Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region
- Hugli region
- Ahmadabad-Baroda region
- Chhottanagpur industrial belt
- Vishakhapatam-Guntur belt
- Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region
- Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial cluster
Distribution of Major Industries
Iron and steel industry, textile industry and information technology industry are the major industries of the world. while the IT industry is an emerging industry, the other two are older industries.
Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia are the major countries with iron and steel industries. India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan are the major countries of textiles industry. The Silicon Valley in California (USA) and Bangalore in India are the major hubs of the IT industry.