Class 8 History

Reforms in Education

NCERT Solution

Question 1: Match the following:

Column AColumn B
(a) William Jones(1) Promotion of English education
(b) Rabindranath Tagore(2) Respect for ancient cultures
(c) Thomas Macaulay(3) Gurus
(d) Mahatma Gandhi(4) Learning in a natural environment
(e) Pathshalas(5) Critical of English education

Answer:(a) 2, (b) 4, (c) 1, (d) 5, (e) 3

Question 2: State whether true or false:

  1. James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.
  2. The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.
  3. Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.
  4. Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.

Answer: (a) True, (b) True, (c) False, (d) False

Question 3: Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?

Answer: William Jones had a deep respect for ancient cultures, both Indian and Western. He thought it important to discover the sacred texts in order to understand India. He was of the view that a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India. He felt that this would not only help the British learn from the Indian culture but would also help Indians rediscover their own heritage.

Question 4: Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?

Answer: They thought that education should be useful and practical. They felt that Indians should be made familiar with the advances being made by the West. They thought that the Indians were uncivilized and needed to be civilized. This could be done only through English education.

Question 5: Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi gave more emphasis on skill development rather than an ability to read and write. He felt that a person should learn the necessary skills so that he could earn a livelihood. Hence, he wanted children to be taught handicrafts.

Question 6: Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi thought the English education developed a sense of inferiority among Indians. Many English educated Indians began to ape the Western ways of life; after getting educated in English. They also began to see the Indians with scorn. He believed that English education had enslaved the Indians.