Class 8 History

Weaver, Iron Smelter

NCERT Solution

Question 1: What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

Answer: Indian cotton textiles which were of fine quality and intricate design had a large market in Europe.

Question 2: What is jamdani?

Answer: Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on loom. Such motifs were usually made in gray and white.

Question 3: What is bandanna?

Answer: A printed scarf for neck or head is called bandanna.

Question 4: Who are the Agaria?

Answer: Agaria are a community from Chhattisgarh. They were the expert iron smelters in the Chhotanagpur plateau.

Question 5: Fill in the blanks:

  1. The word chintz comes from the word _________.
  2. Tipu's sword was made of_________ steel.
  3. India’s textile exports declined in the _________ century.

Answer: (a) Cheent, (b) Wootz, (c) Nineteenth

Question 6: How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?

Answer: Many words in English and other languages; in current usage; show the proof of the flourishing trade between India and other parts of the world. For example; the word “muslin” was used to refer to all finely woven textiles. This word has originated from Mosul which is in present day Iraq. This was the place where European traders first became aware about fine cotton cloth from India. The Arab merchants used to bring find cotton cloths in Mosul.

Question 7: Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?

Answer: By the early eighteenth century, the wool and silk makers in England were worried by the popularity of Indian textiles. Hence, they began to protest against the import of Indian cotton textiles.

Question 8: How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?

Answer: The development of cotton industries in Britain affected the textile producers in India in various ways. British textiles were now giving competition to Indian textiles in the European and American markets. High import duties in England made it difficult to export textiles from India. Thus, the British manufactures cotton textiles ousted the Indian textiles from their traditional markets in Africa, America and Europe; by the beginning of the nineteenth century.

Question 9: Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?

Answer: Import of steel ingots from Britain gradually led to decline or the Indian iron smelting industry in the nineteenth century. The new forest laws were also responsible for this because finding wood and charcoal was becoming more difficult. New forest laws also restricted the smelters’ access to iron ore mines.

Question 10: What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?

Answer: The textiles industry of India faced many problems in the first few decades of its existence. Competing with cheap textiles imported from Britain was difficult. The governments of most of the European countries protected their local industries by heavy import duties. The colonial government in India did not provide such protection to local industries.

Question 11: What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?

Answer: The First World War changed the situation. Steel produced in Britain was being utilised to meet the demands of the war. As a result, the Indian Railways turned to TISCO for supply of rails. The TISCO also produced shells and carriage wheels for the war. By 1919, the colonial government was buying 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Gradually, TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British empire.