Chapters 1 to 6
Chapters 7 to 12
Transport in Plant
Chapters 13 to 17
Chapters 18 to 22
11 Bio Chapter Summary
Food provides energy for different activities in the body. Food also provides organic materials for growth and repair.
The process of converting complex food into absorbable forms is called
. Various mechanical and biochemical methods are involved in digestion of food.
The human digestive system consists of the
The alimentary canal can be divided into five main parts, viz. mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Each tooth is embedded in a socket of jaw bone. This type of attachment is called
The arrangement of different types of teeth in the jaws of an animal is called
The type of dentition in which an animal gets two sets of teeth during its lifetime is called
. This type of dentition is present in most of the mammals.
When different types of teeth are present, this arrangement is called
An adult human has four different types of teeth, viz.
incisors (I), canine (C), premolars (PM) and molars (M)
. There are 32 permanent teeth in an adult human being.
There are three major parts in the stomach, viz. the
cardiac, fundic and pyloric
Small intestine is divided into three regions, viz.
duodenum, jejunum and ileum
The large intestine consists of
caecum, colon and rectum
There are three pairs of salivary glands, viz.
parotids, sub-maxillary/submandibular and sbublinguals
is situated in the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm.
is a compound gland, i.e. both exocrine and endocrine. It is an elongated organ. This is situated between the limbs of the U-shaped duodenum.
Salivary amylase initiates the chemical process of digestion. About 30% of starch is hydrolysed by salivary amylase (optimum pH 6.8); into a disaccharide, i.e. maltose.
Successive waves of muscular contractions in the alimentary canal are called
The proenzyme pepsinogen gets converted into the active enzyme pepsin; on exposure to hydrochloric acid.
converts proteins into proteoses and peptones (peptides).
contains inactive enzymes;
trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidases, amylases, lipases and nucleases
contains various enzymes; like
disachharidases (e.g. maltase), dipeptidases, lipases, nucleosidases
Proteins, proteoses and peptones are acted upon by the proteolytic enzymes of pancreatic juices.
Carbohydrates are hydrolysed by pancreatic amylase into disaccharides.
Fats are broken down by lipases with the help of bile into di- and monoglycerides.
The simple substances; formed after digestion; are absorbed in the jejunum and ileum regions of the small intestine. The undigested and unabsorbed substances go to the large intestine. No significant digestive activity occurs in the large intestine.
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