Chapters 1 to 6
Chapters 7 to 12
Transport in Plant
Chapters 13 to 17
Chapters 18 to 22
11 Bio Chapter Summary
Exchange of Gases
The process of exchange of O
(from the atmosphere) with CO
(produced by cells) is called breathing. This process is commonly known as
The human respiratory system is composed of
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
The lungs are composed of the branching network of
bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
. Each lung is covered by a double-layered pleura.
is constituted by the external nostrils, pharynx, larynx, bronchi and the terminal bronchioles.
of the respiratory system is composed of the alveoli and their ducts. Actual diffusion of O
(between blood and atmospheric air) takes place in the exchange part of the respiratory system.
The lungs are situated in the
. This is anatomically an air-tight chamber.
Breathing involves two stages, viz.
inspiration and expiration
The volume of air inspired or expired during a normal respiration is called
Additional volume of air, a person can inspire by a forcible inspiration is called
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Additional volume of air, a person can expire by a forcible expiration is called
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The volume of air remaining in the lungs even after a forcible expiration is called
The total volume of air a person can inspire after a normal expiration is called
The total volume of air a person can expire after a normal inspiration is called
The volume of air which remains in the lungs after a normal expiration is called
Functional Residual Capacity
The maximum volume of air a person can breathe in after a forceful expiration is called
Total volume of air accommodated in the lungs at the end of a forced inspiration is called
Total Lung Capacity
are the main sites of exchange of gases. However, exchange of gases also occurs between blood and tissues. The exchange of O
at these sites happens by simple diffusion which is mainly based on pressure/concentration gradient.
About 97% of oxygen is transported by RBCs. The remaining 3% of oxygen is carried in a dissolved state through the plasma.
About 20-25% of carbon dioxide is transported by RBCs. About 70% of carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate and about 7% is carried in a dissolved state through plasma.
Oxygen can bind with haemoglobin in a reversible manner to form
respiratory rhythm centre
is present in the medulla and is mainly responsible for the regulation of respiration.
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