12 Biology

Reproductive Health

NCERT Solution

Question 1: What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?

Answer: According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), reproductive health means a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social. Hence, a society in which people are having physically and functionally normal reproductive organs, and have normal emotional and behavioural interactions in all sex-related aspects can be said to be reproductively healthy society. Reproductive health ensures peace in the society.

Question 2: Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.

Answer: In the present scenario, following aspects of reproductive health need to be given special attention:

  • Infertility
  • Size of family; especially among poor and illiterates
  • Abnormal sexual behaviour in the society
  • Insecurities among adolescents

Question 3: Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?

Answer: Teenagers are at that juncture of life when many physiological and psychological changes take place. Half-baked knowledge at this stage can be highly dangerous for the individual as well as for the society. Many children often learn about myths and wrong notions about sexuality. This can only be tackled through proper sex education of teenage children. Hence, sex education is necessary in schools.




Question 4: Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.

Answer: There are many developments which show that reproductive health has improved in our country in the past 50 years. Some of them are as follows:

  • Average size of the family has reduced. Many couples in urban areas now prefer the two-child norm. Some couples now preferring even one-child norm.
  • Maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate has significantly reduced.

Question 5: What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?

Answer: Population explosion has been possible due to various reasons; like improvement in food supplies, medical care, and decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate.

Question 6: Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.

Answer: We know that a large family can be the root of many ills. It is very difficult to sustain a large family. It is a drain both on the individual as well as on the nation. A small family is ideal from many perspectives. Children can get better nutrition, healthcare, education and material comfort. The mother also gets better quality of life when she does not need to look after too many children. Hence, it can be said that the use of contraceptive is justified to ensure a small size of the family and to check on population explosion.

Question 7: Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?

Answer: Gonads not only are important for sexual reproduction but also play important role in overall health of the body. Removal of gonads can result in hormonal imbalances; leading to many physical and psychological problems. Hence, removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option.

Question 8: Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.

Answer: Amniocentesis had been devised as a tool to detect any abnormality in the foetus. But this technology has been misused for detecting the gender of the unborn child. As a male child is preferred over a girl child in our country so many people resort to female foeticide. This has resulted in eschewed sex ratio in the country. Hence, it is necessary to ban amniocentesis in our country.



Question 9: Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.

Answer: Sometimes, simple treatment or even proper counseling can help in overcoming the problem of infertility. In other cases, couples may have to resort to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART); in order to have children.

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF): When fertilization is carried out outside the body, it is called in-vitro fertilization. IVF is followed by Embryo Transfer (ET). This method is popularly known as Test Tube Baby programme. In this method, ova from the female and sperms from the male are collected and are induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory. After that, the zygote or early embryo (up to 8 blastomeres) is transferred into the fallopian tube. This method of zygote transfer is called ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer). When an embryo with more than 8 blastomeres is transferred into the uterus, it is called IUT (Intra Uterine Transfer).

GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer): When ovum from a donor is transferred into the fallopian tube of another female (who is unable to ovulate), it is called GIFT.

ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection): When a sperm is directly injected into the ovum in laboratory to carry out fertilization, it is called ICSI. This method is useful when the male partner is unable to inseminate the female due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculate.

Inta Uterine Insemination: When semen collected from the husband or from a healthy donor is artificially induced either into the vagina or into the uterus, it is called Intra Uterine Insemination.

Question 10: What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?

Answer: Following steps need to be taken to prevent STDs:

  • Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
  • Always use condoms during coitus.
  • In case of doubt, go to a qualified doctor for early detection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.




Question 11: State True/False with explanation

(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)

Answer: Sometimes, there can be some medical complications for the foetus or the expectant mother. This may result in spontaneous abortion.

(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)

Answer: Contrary to popular myth, defects in the male partner far outnumber those in the female partner. Hence, this statement is false.

(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)

Answer: Lactational amenorrhoea means lack of menstruation during intense lactation just after parturition. Lack of menstruation means ovulation does not occur during this period. Hence, this period is comparatively safe for coitus. However, this method cannot be termed as 100% foolproof.

(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)

Answer: People should know the ways and means to live a healthy sexual life. They should know how to maintain a small size of the family. They should know how to prevent STDs, and how to lead a healthy social life. All of this can be achieved through increasing awareness about sex related aspects.

Question 12: Correct the following statements:

(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.

Answer: Surgical methods prevent physical contact between male and female gametes.

(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.

Answer: Some STDs are incurable, e.g. herpes, hepatitis-B and AIDS.

(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.

Answer: Rural women are least aware about oral contraceptives and hence these not popular among rural women.

(d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.

Answer: In ET techniques, embryo is transferred into fallopian tube (up to 8 blastomeres), and into uterus (more than 8 blastomeres).