Question 1: How is food security ensured in India?
Answer: Food security is being ensured in India by using following methods:
Question 2: Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?
Answer: The worst affected people from food-insecurity are the landless poor, traditional artisans, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitute. In urban areas; people who are employed in low paid jobs and in seasonal works come under this category of people.
Question 3: Which states are more food insecure in India?
Answer: The BIMARU states (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) and Orissa have a large portion of population which can be among the food-insecure people.
Question 4: Do you believe that green revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?
Answer: Since the launch of the Green Revolution in 1970s, there has not been a single case of famine in spite of adverse weather conditions in several years. Foodgrain production increased from about 70 million tonnes in 1960-61 to about 252 million tonnes in 2015-16. The foodgrain production in 2016-17 was 275 million tonnes. These facts show that Green Revolution has been a success in India.
Question 5: A section of people in India are still without food. Explain?
Answer: Although India has become a food surplus country, there are still some people who suffer from food insecurity. As per the data of 1999-2000, about 0.9% of people still suffer from hunger. While this is a very small amount in terms of percentage, it can be a large number in absolute terms.
Question 6: What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?
Answer: In case of a disaster or a calamity, the food supply gets interrupted. Many people come in a position in which they may have to go hungry. The buffer stock from the FCI is utilised in those situations to provide food to the affected people. For example; food packets are dropped in flood affected areas.
Question 7: Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?
Answer: Chronic hunger is prevalent among those who earn very low and thus suffer from hunger for most of the time. Seasonal hunger is related to agricultural cycle. Many landless farm workers and marginal farmers may be suffering from seasonal hunger.
Question 8: What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?
Answer: In the 1970s, three important food intervention progammes were introduced to tackle the shortage of food:
Question 9: Why buffer stock is created by the government?
Answer: Buffer stock has been created to meet any exigencies. The buffer stock can be utilised in case of drought or flood or any natural calamity.
Question 10: Write notes on:
(a) Minimum support price
Answer The government procures foodgrains and some other farm produce through the FCI. For this, the government announced MSP (Minimum Support Price).
(b) Buffer stock
Answer The extra stock of foodgrains maintained by the FCI is called buffer stock. This stock is utilised in case of drought or flood or any natural calamity.
(c) Issue price
Answer The price at which foodgrains are sold through the PDS is called issue price. The issue price is always lower than the market price.
(d) Fair price shops
Answer The ration shops which come under the PDS are called fair price shops.
Question 11: What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?
Answer: There have many instances of poor management and corruption. Many people complain that after the segregation of APL and BPL, people holding the APL card seldom go to the ration shops because of minor variations with the market prices. The ration shopkeepers often siphon off the foodgrains into open market and sell poor quality foodgrains through the ration shop. The shopkeepers are also erratic in their behaviour because of which many people suffer.
Question 12: Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
Answer: Cooperatives are playing important role in providing food and related items at fair prices. AMUL is an example of cooperative which procures and sells milk to most parts of India. Mother Dairy sells milk and dairy products and vegetables through its various outlets.
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