Thorn Forests and Scrubs


Montane Forests

The forests in the mountainous areas are called montane forest. Different types of vegetation are found at different altitudes in the mountains.

types of vegetation India map
  1. The wet temperate type of forest is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metre. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oak and chestnut abound in such forests.
  2. Temperate forests are found between the heights of 1500 and 3000 metre. Coniferous trees; like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar abound in such forests.
  3. Alpine vegetation are found are heights of more than 3600 metre.

These forests are mainly found along the southern slopes of the Himalayas and at high altitudes in southern and north-eastern India. Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear, rare red panda, sheep and goats are the common animals in these forests.


Mangrove Forests

Mangrove forests are found in the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavarai and the Kaveri. Roots of the mangrove plants are submerged under water. Hollow roots grow out vertically above water so that roots can breathe. Sundari tree is the most common tree in such forests; especially in the Sunderban Delta. Royal Bengal Tiger is the most famous animal of these forests. Additionally, turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are found in these forests.

Type of VegetationRainfallAreas FloraFauna
RainforestMore than 200 cmWestern Ghats, North-eastern India, Islands Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchonaElephants, monkey, lemur and deer
Deciduous Forest70 to 100 cmBihar, UP, MP, W. Bengal, Maharashtra, etc. Teak, bamboo, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberryLion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant
Thorny BushesLess than 70 cmRajasthan, Gujarat acacia, palms, euphorbias and cactusCamel, rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse, etc.
Montane ForestN/AHimalayas and North-east Pine, deodar, fir, cedar, etc.Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear, rare red panda, sheep and goats
Mangrove ForestN/ADelta of Ganga, Mahanadi, Kaveri, Godavari Sundari, OrchidRoyal Bengal Tiger

WILD LIFE

There are more than 89,000 animal species in India. There are more than 1200 species of birds in India. Elephants are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala. One-horned rhinos are found in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal. Wild ass and camels are found in the Rann of Kachchh and Thar Desert. Indian bison, nilgai, chousingha, gazel and many other species of deer and some other animals are found in India. India is the only country in the world which has both tigers and lions.



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