Question 1: Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?
Answer: This statement is quite correct. Modern farming methods require chemical fertilisers, pesticides and modern farm equipments. All of these are manufactured in industry.
Question 2: How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?
Answer: Electricity can help any village. Availability of electricity ensures better irrigation. It also means that villagers can engage in some manufacturing activities; like flour mills, jaggery production, etc. Children can study late in the evening and shopkeepers can do better business if proper electricity supply can be provided.
Question 3: Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
Answer: As per estimates, 60% of the villages still need proper irrigation facility. Since land under cultivation cannot be increased to increasing the area under irrigation is a major way to improve farm productivity.
Question 4: Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.
|No. of families||Land (hect)|
Question 5: Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?
Answer: There is more supply of workers than the demand. Due to this, the workers are not in a position to bargain from their employers. Hence, the wages for farm labourers are less than minimum wages.
Question 6: In your region, talk to two labourers. Choose either farm labourers or labourers working at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?
Answer: People who work at construction site usually get the minimum wages. An unskilled worker gets around Rs. 250 per day. A skilled worker; such as a mason; get around Rs. 500 per day.
Question 7: What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.
Answer: Production can be increased by using HYV seeds, fertilisers and proper irrigation. Mixed farming can also be used to improve farm production.
Question 8: Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.
Answer: A farmer with 1 hectare of land shall put under the category of small farmer. Most of the work would be done by the farmer and his family members. The farmer will normally use a pair of bullocks to plough the field. His family members would assist him in sowing the seeds. During harvest time, he may require to hire some labourers.
Question 9: How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
Answer: Medium and large farmers usually have surplus cash by selling their farm produce. Since they have land and house, they easily get loan from banks. Small farmers, on the other hand, may not be able to get bank loans. They have to depend on the local merchant and moneylender for loan.
Question 10: Talk to some old residents in your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years.
Answer: During the early period, irrigation was done by Persian wheel. Diesel operated or electricity operated pumps have replaced the Persian wheels. Tractors have replaced bullocks for ploughing the large farms. Now more and more farmers are in a position to grow up to three crops in a year.
Question 11: What are the non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Make a short list.
Answer: Cycle repair shop, carpenter, ironsmith, general store, tea stall, stationary shop, computer training institute, etc.
Question 12: What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?
Answer: The government should improve electricity supply in the villages. It should open more schools so that children can grow to become educated adults. Moreover, government can also provide vocational training to the rural youths. These activities would help in increasing non-farm production activities in a village.
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