The northern plain of India is formed by three river systems, viz. the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra; along with their tributaries. This plain is composed of alluvial soil which has been deposited over millions of years. The total area of the northern plain is about 7 lakh square kilometer. It is about 2400 km long and about 240 to 320 km broad.
The northern plain is divided into three sections, viz. the Punjab Plain, the Ganga Plain and the Brahmaputra Plain.
Punjab Plains: The Punjab plains form the western part of the northern plain. This is formed by the Indus and its tributaries; like Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. A major portion of this plains is in Pakistan. Doabs abound in this plain.
Ganga Plains: This plain extends between Ghaggar and Tista rivers. The northern states, Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, part of Jharkhand and West Bengal lie in the Ganga plains.
Brahmaputra Plains: This plain forms the eastern part of the northern plain and lies in Assam.
Based on the relief features; the northern plain can be divided into four regions, viz. bhabar, terai, bhangar and khadar.
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