Class 9 Civics

The President

The President is the head of the State. Although all decisions of the government are taken in the name of the President, he is just a titular head of the government.

Any bill which is passed by the Parliament needs the signature of the President to become a law. All the major orders of the government need President's assent before they can be enacted. All international treaties are signed in the name of the President.

Appointments By President

The President appoints the Chief Justice of India, Chief Justices of the High Courts and Judges of the lower courts. He also appoints the governors of the states. All major appointments are made by the President. The President is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces.

When no single party or a coalition is in a position to form a government, it is the President who decides on who is going to form the government. In that situation, the President invites the person; who he observes is most likely to secure a majority of the house, to form the government. After that, the newly appointed Prime Minister is given some deadline to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha.

The Judiciary

An independent and powerful judiciary is considered essential for democracies. India has an integrated judiciary which is composed of the Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts and various local level courts. The Supreme Court is the apex court in the country and hence its decision cannot be challenged. Its decision is binding on all other courts of the country. The Supreme Court can take up any dispute which is as follows:

Independent Judiciary

The independent judiciary's main role is in protecting the Fundamental Rights as enshrined in the Constitution of India. If any law is passed by the Government (at centre or state), which is viewed as overlooking the fundamental tenets of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has the right to revoke the law. There are many cases in which litigations have been filed on behalf of public against laws enacted by the government. The independence of the judiciary ensures that no government can behave in an autocratic way.