Need for political institutions: The government is responsible for providing various things and facilities to the people. It needs to provide security to the people. It needs to work for the welfare of the people. The government has to collect taxes so that it can get money to carry out various welfare programmes. The money from the tax is also utilised in maintaining the government machinery.
There are various organs and departments of the government with separate roles and responsibilities. Division of responsibilities ensures division of labour. It also ensures that power is not concentrated in one person or one particular body.
Various departments and bodies are called government institutions. Formation of various institutions is necessary for smooth functioning of the government.
In most of the cases; pertaining to civil matters; three main institutions are at work. They are as follows:
Disadvantages of Institutions: Presence of various institutions leads to delay in decision making which can be quite frustrating for many.
Advantages of Institutions: Presence of various institutions ensures that a broad consensus is arrived at before any major decision is taken. Institutions also prevent a bad decision being rushed into.
In India, there are two houses of Parliament, viz. the House of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of People (Lok Sabha). Rajya Sabha is called the Upper House, while the Lok Sabha is called the Lower House. System of two houses in legislature is called Bicameral Legislature.
Members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by people, while the members of the Rajya Sabha come through indirect elections.
Lok Sabha is more powerful compared to the Rajya Sabha; because Lok Sabha is directly elected by and answerable to the people. However, the Rajya Sabha has some special powers to look after the interests of states or regions.
Parliament is the final authority for making laws in the country. The task of making a law is called legislation and hence the parliament or the assemblies are called legislatures. The legislature can make a new law, change existing laws or abolish existing laws.
All over the world, the parliaments have some control over those who run the government. In case of India; the control of the parliament is direct and full. A government is empowered to takes decision only till it enjoys the support of the Parliament.
Parliament controls all the money which the government has. In most of the democratic countries, the public money can only be spent after the sanction of the parliament.
Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament has the right to seek information on any matter.
Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the houses. A bill can become a law only after passage from both the houses.
If there is a difference between the two Houses, then a joint session is held to take the decision. Since the Lok Sabha has more members than the Rajya Sabha, so the view of the Lok Sabha is likely to prevail during a joint session.
Lok Sabha has more powers in case of money bills. Once the budget or any other money bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it cannot be rejected by the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha can only delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in it. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept those changes.
The Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. A person who enjoys the majority support in the Lok Sabha is appointed as the Prime Minister. Once the Lok Sabha says that its members have ‘no confidence’ in the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister; alongwith all the ministers; has to quit. The Rajya Sabha does not enjoy this power.
Political Executive: The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers make the political executive. The task of the Council of Ministers is to execute the programmes and policies of the government hence it is called the executive. Members of the political executive are elected by the people.
Permanent Executive: The Civil Servants form the permanent executive. They are selected through the All India Civil Services and continue in their job irrespective of the change of government.
Since the political executive is answerable to the people hence it enjoys more power than the permanent executive. However, people in the permanent executive are technically more knowledgeable and capable compared to those in the political executive.
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