Acid Base and Salt class ten science characteristics and family of salts

Acid Base and Salt

Characteristics of salt:


Salt

Salts are the ionic compounds which are produced after the neutralization reaction between acid and base. Salts are electrically neutral. There are number of salts but sodium chloride is the most common among them. Sodium chloride is also known as table salt or common salt. Sodium chloride is used to enhance the taste of food.

Family of Salt:

Salts having common acidic or basic radicals are said to belong to same family.

Example: Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Calcium chloride (CaCl2) belong to chloride family.

Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) belong to calcium family.

Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) belong to zinc family.


Acidic, Basic and Neutral Salts

Neutral Salt: Salts produced because of reaction between strong acid and strong base are neutral in nature. The pH value of such salts is equal to 7, i.e. neutral. Example; Sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, potassium chloride, etc.

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is formed after the reaction between hydrochloric acid (a strong acid) and sodium hydroxide (a strong base).

NaOH + HCl ⇨ NaCl + H2O

Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4): It is formed after the reaction between sodium hydroxide (a strong base) and sulphuric acid (a strong acid).

2NaOH + H2SO4 ⇨ Na2SO4 + 2H2O

Potassium chloride (KCl): It is formed after the reaction between potassium hydroxide (a strong base) and hydrochloric acid (a strong acid).

KOH + HCl ⇨ KCl + H2O


Acidic salt:

Salts which are formed after the reaction between a strong acid and weak base are called acidic salt. The pH value of acidic salt is lower than 7. Example: ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, etc.

Ammonium chloride is formed after reaction between hydrochloric acid (a strong acid) and ammonium hydroxide (a weak base).

NH4OH + HCl ⇨ NH4Cl + H2O

Ammonium sulphate is formed after reaction between ammonium hydroxide (weak base) and sulphuric acid (a strong acid).

2NH4OH + H2SO4 ⇨ (NH4 )2SO4 + 2H2O

Basic Salt: Salts which are formed after the reaction between weak acid and strong base are called basic salt. For example; sodium carbonate, sodium acetate, etc.

Sodium carbonate is formed after the reaction between sodium hydroxide (a strong base) and carbonic acid (a weak base).

H2CO3 + 2NaOH ⇨ Na2CO3 + 2H2O

Sodium acetate is formed after the reaction between a strong base, sodium hydroxide and a weak acid, acetic acid.

CH3COOH + NaOH ⇨ CH3COONa + H2O

Cause of formation of acidic, basic and neutral salt:

pH value of salt:



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