Carbon Compounds

Chapter Summary

Organic Compounds

Compounds of carbon are called organic compounds because previously such compounds came from organic sources only.

Properties of Carbon

The valency of carbon is 4 and it makes covalent compounds.

A bond formed by sharing of electrons is called covalent bond.


Compounds of carbon with hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. There are two types:

  • Saturated Hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

Saturated Hydrocarbon

All the bonds are single bonds in saturated hydrocarbon.

They are called alkane and general formula is CnH2n + 2

Examples: Methane, Ethane, Butane

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

At least one bond is either a double bond or a triple bond.

Those with a double bond are called alkene and general formula is CnH2n

Those with a triple bond are called alkyne and general formula is CnH2n - 2

Cyclic Hydrocarbon

Organic compounds with ring-like structure are called cyclic hydrocarbon, e.g. Benzene

Functional Group

Single atom or group of atoms with distinct chemical property is called functional group, e.g. halogen group, carboxyl group, aldehyde group, alcohol group, ketone group, alkyl group, etc.


Formula: C2H5OH

Is also known as ethyl alcohol or spirit.

It is soluble in water.

Ethanoic Acid

Formula: C2H5COOH

It is also known as acetic acid.

Vinegar is 5% to 8% solution of ethanoic acid in water.