Class 10 Chemistry



Physical properties of non-metals

Hardness: Non-metals are not hard rather they are generally soft. But diamond is exception; it is most hard naturally occurring substance.

State: Non-metals may be solid, liquid or gas.

Lustre: Non-metals have dull appearance. Diamond and iodine are exceptions.

Sonority: Non-metals are not sonorous, i.e. they do not produce a typical sound no being hit.

Conduction: Non-metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity. Graphite which is allotrope of carbon is good conductor of electricity, and is an exception.

Malleability and ductility: Non-metals are brittle.


Melting and boiling point: Non-metals have generally low melting and boiling points.

Density: Most of the non-metals have low density.

Color: Non-metals are of many colors.

Chemical properties of Non-metals

Reaction of non-metals with oxygen: Non-metals form respective oxide when react with oxygen.

Non-metal + Oxygen ⇨ Non-metal oxide

When carbon reacts with oxygen, carbon dioxide is formed along with production of heat.

C + O2 ⇨ CO2 + Heat

When carbon is burnt in insufficient supply of air, it forms carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic substance. Inhaling of carbon monoxide may prove fatal.

2C + O2 ⇨ 2CO + Heat

Sulphur gives sulphur dioxide when react with oxygen. Sulphur caught fire when exposed to air.

S + O2 ⇨ SO2

When hydrogen reacts with oxygen it gives water.

2H2 + O2 ⇨ 2H2O


Non-metal oxide:

Non-metal oxides are acidic in nature. Solution of non-metal oxides turns blue litmus red.

Carbon dioxide gives carbonic acid when dissolved in water.

CO2 + H2O ⇨ H2CO3

Sulphur dioxide gives sulphurous acid when dissolved in water.

SO2 + H2O ⇨ H2SO3

Sulphur dioxide gives sulphur trioxide when it reacts with oxygen.

2SO2 + O2 ⇨ 2SO3

Sulphur trioxide gives sulphuric acid when dissolved in water.

SO3 + H2O ⇨ H2SO4


Reaction of non-metal with chlorine:

Non metals give respective chloride when they react with chlorine gas.

Non-metal + Chlorine ⇨ Non-metal chloride

Hydrogen gives hydrogen chloride and phosphorous gives phosphorous trichloride when react with chlorine.

H2 + Cl2 ⇨ 2HCl

P4 + 6Cl2 ⇨ 4PCl3




Metals

Properties:Metals-I

Properties:Metals-II

Reactivity Series

Reac:Metals Non metal

Ionic bonds

Extraction:Metals

Metals of low reactivity

Metals of high reactivity

NCERT Solution

Exemplar Solutions

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