- Compounds which are made up of carbon are called organic compounds.
- The bond formed by sharing of electrons by two or more atoms is called covalent bond.
- The bond formed by sharing of two electrons (a pair) is called single bond.
- The bond formed by sharing of four electrons (two pairs) is called double bond.
- The bond formed by sharing of six electrons (three pairs) is called triple bond.
- When a particular element is found in different forms in the same physical state, this phenomenon is called allotropy. Allotropes show similar chemical properties but different physical properties.
- Carbon can form bonds with other atoms of carbon; making large molecules. This property of carbon is called catenation.
- Carbon has four valence electrons, i.e. it shows tetravalency. Due to this, it can make bonds with many other elements; like oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur, chlorine, etc.
- Organic compounds which are composed entirely of hydrogen and carbon are called hydrocarbons.
- When all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds, then the compound is called saturated hydrocarbons.
- When an organic compound has double or triple bonds between carbon atoms then the compound is called unsaturated hydrocarbon. They are of two types, viz. alkene and alkyne.
- If an organic compound has a double bond between two carbon atoms, then it is called alkene.
- If an organic compound has a triple bond between two carbon atoms, then it is called alkyne.
- Heteroatoms which confer specific properties to organic compound are called functional groups.
- A series of compounds in which the same functional group replaces the hydrogen atom is called homologous series.
- All members of a homologous series show similar chemical properties.
- The molecular mass of subsequent members increases by 14 u.
- All organic compounds burn in oxygen to give carbon dioxide and heat & light.
- Unsasturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reaction in presence of nickel/palladium as catalyst. After addition reaction, hydrogen is added to unsaturated hydrocarbon; to produce saturated hydrocarbon.
- Ethanol is represented by the chemical formula C2H5OH or CH3CH2OH.
- Ethanoic acid is a carboxylic acid. It is represented chemical formula is CH3COOH.
- Soaps are salts of fatty acid. Soap is made by treating vegetable oil or animal fat with a strong alkali.
- Micelle formation is responsible for cleansing action of soap.
These main points are highly helpful for last minute preparation for examination. You can glance through them while going for examination. You can view them in the school bus, in car, in elevator, etc.