Class 10 Civics

Democracy and Diversity

Democracy and Diversity: NCERT Solution

Read the following passage from a famous speech by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963. Which social division is he talking about? What are his aspirations and anxieties? Do you see a relationship between this speech and the incident in Mexico Olympics mentioned in this chapter?

“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. Let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring—when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: ‘Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’ I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal’.

Anwer: Martin Luther King Jr is talking about social division based on skin colour. His anxieties are about people’s prejudices against the blacks. He aspires for a society in which no discrimination takes place on the basis of social division. The incident at Mexico Olympics was also an attempt to raise the voice against apartheid.


Answer the following questions:

  • Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.
    Answer: Political manifestation of social diversity depends on three factors, which are as follows:
    • How people perceive their identities. If people see their identity in singular or exclusive term, it becomes difficult to accommodate social diversity.
    • How political leaders raise the demands of any community.
    • How the government reacts to the demands of a community. If the government accommodates the demand of a particular community in a justified way, it does wonders for the politics.
  • When does a social difference become a social division?
    Answer: When social difference leads to exclusionist approach among people. It leads to social division. In case of India, the upper caste people had historically controlled almost all the resources and had tried to exclude the dalits and lower caste people from enjoying the benefits of economic development. This led to social division in the country.
  • How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples.
    Answer: Politics of a country cannot remain untouched by social divisions. Political parties will always try to represent some social community and would continue to raise their voices. This results in emergence of a leader or a political group which represents a particular social group. For example; the emergence of BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) happened because its founders took up the cause of the dalits.
  • ______________ social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. ______________ social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
    Answer: Exclusionist, Inclusive

  • In dealing with social divisions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?
    • Due to political competition in a democracy, social divisions get reflected in politics.
    • In a democracy it is possible for communities to voice their grievances in a peaceful manner.
    • Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.
    • Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

    Answer: (d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
  • Consider the following three statements.
    • Social divisions take place when social differences overlap.
    • It is possible that a person can have multiple identities.
    • Social divisions exist in only big countries like India.

    Which of the statements is/are correct?
    • A, B and C
    • A and B
    • B and C
    • Only C

    Answer: (b) A and B
  • Arrange the following statements in a logical sequence and select the right answers by using the code given below.
    • But all political expression of social divisions need not be always dangerous.
    • Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries.
    • Parties try to win political support by appealing to social divisions.
    • Some social differences may result in social divisions.
    • D, B, C, A
    • D, B, A, C
    • D, A, C, B
    • A, B, C, D

    Answer: (a) D, B, C, A
  • Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?
    • Belgium
    • India
    • Yugoslavia
    • Netherlands

    Answer: (c) Yugoslavia