Class 10 Geography

Resources and Development

Resource Planning:

Resource planning is the judicious use of resources. Resource planning becomes more important in a country like India, where resources are not distributed properly. For example; many states are rich in mineral and deficient in other resources, such as Jharkhand is rich in minerals, but there is problem of drinking water and other facilities, Arunachal Pradesh has plenty of water but lack of other development because of lack of resources.

These types of discriminations can be reduced or completely vanished with proper planning of judicious use of resources.

Resource Planning in India:

Resources can contribute in proper development only with a good planning keeping the technology, skills and institution in mind.

Resource Planning in India is one of the most important goals right from its first Five Years Plan. Following are the main points of Resource planning.

  • Making of inventory of resources after their region-wise identification across the country.
  • Making of the planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutions.
  • Matching of resource plan with development plan, etc.

Conservation of Resources:

Overuse of resources creates many socio-economic problems. Many leaders and thinkers have been advocating for the judicious use and conservation of resources. Gandhiji told “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed.” He thought that exploitative nature of modern technology is the root cause for depletion at global level. He believed in the production by masses and not in the mass production.

Thus, conservation of resources at various levels becomes most important. Resources can be conserved only with their judicious use.

Land Resources:

Land is one of the most important natural resources. Land supports our life system. Thus, careful planning of use of land resource is necessary. India comprises of many types of land. These are mountains, plateau, plains and islands.

  • Mountains: About 30% of land area in India is in the form of mountain. Mountain supports the perennial flow of rivers, which carry fertile soils, facilitate irrigation and provide drinking water.
  • Plain: About 43% of land area in India is in the form of plains. Plains provide facilities for agriculture, building of industries and houses, etc.
  • Plateau: About 27% of land in India is in the form of plateau which provides many types of minerals, fossil fuels and forest.

Land Utilisaiton: Patterns of use of Land Resources

  • Forests
  • Land not available for cultivation: There are two types of land which are not used for agriculture purpose. These are:
    • Barren and waste land
    • Lands used for buildings, roads, factories, etc. i.e for non-agriculture purpose.
  • Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
    • Permanent pastures and grazing land,
    • Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area),
    • Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
  • Fallow lands
    • Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
    • Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
  • Net sown area: Area which is sown at least once in a year is called net sown area.
  • Gross cropped area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Land Use Pattern in India:

Pattern of use of land depends upon physical and human factors both. Climate, topography, type of soil, etc. are considered as physical factors while population, technology, skill, population density, tradition, capability, etc. are considered as human factors.

India has total 3.28 million square kilometer land used data. But only 93% of land of total geographical area is available. This is because land used data has not been collected for the north eastern states except Assam and the land occupied by Pakistan and China has not been surveyed because of many unavoidable reasons.

The land under permanent pasture is decreasing, this will create the problem for grazing. The total net sown are (NSA) is not more than 54% including land other than fallow land. Land other than fallow land is either of poor quality or too costly to cultivate, these lands are cultivated only once or twice in two or three consecutive years.

The pattern of net sown area varies widely from state to state. Where net sown area is 80% in state like Punjab, it is only 10% in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Island. Such difference is creating lot of discrimination.

According to National Forest Policy (1952), the forest should be 33% of total geographical area, which is essential to maintain ecological balance. But the forest area in India is far less than desired measures. This is because of illegal deforestation and development which cannot be overlooked, such as construction of roads and building, etc. On the other hand, a large population which is dwelling at the fringe of forest depends upon the forest and its produce, resulting in the reduction of forest area.

Moreover, continuous use of land over a long period without taking measures to conserve and manage, degrade them. This has resulted in repercussion in society and creating serious problem to environment.


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Resource Types

Soil

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