Question 21: Why is the tertiary sector becoming more important in India? Explain.
Answer: Tertiary sector is the largest contributor to GDP as per data of 2003 given in textbook. Moreover, tertiary sector is opening new avenues for employment and is earning foreign exchange too. So, tertiary sector is becoming more important in India.
Why is organized sector preferred by the employees? Explain.
Answer: Organised sector gives many benefits to employees which are not present in unorganized sector. People working in organized sector get regular salary, leave benefits and social security benefits. This is the reason organized sector is preferred by the employees.
Question 22: “The pace of change in the communication sector has been rapid in modern times.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer: In the last two decades, there has been huge expansion in mobile telephony and internet. It has dramatically changed the communication sector. E-commerce and digital payment could have been possible due to these developments in the communication sector. All these developments have taken place at a breathtaking pace.
“Roadways have an edge over Railways.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer: Roadways gives many advantages over railways. Laying road is comparatively easier even in difficult geographical terrain. Roads provide a means to provide proper connectivity to almost every nook and corner of the country.
Question 23: Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel. Suggest and explain any three ways to make it popular.
Answer: Three ways in which natural gas can be made more popular are as follows:
Pipelines: More pipelines should be laid so that natural gas can be made available in every part of the country. This will make it cheaper to use natural gas.
Awareness: People should be made aware about benefits of natural gas. This can be done through sustained public awareness campaign.
More CNG Pumps on Highways: Most of the highways in India still do not have CNG pumps. Number of CNG pumps should be increased in order to encourage vehicle owners to switch over to CNG as fuel.
Question 24: Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:
Over a hundred countries of the world today claim and practice some kind of democratic politics: they have formed constitutions, they hold elections, they have parties and they guarantee rights of citizens. While these features are common to most of them, these democracies are very much difference from each other in terms of their social situations, their economic achievements and their cultures. Clearly, what may be achieved or not achieved under these democracies will be very different.
(24.1) Explain the fascination for democracy amongst various countries. (1)
Answer: Democracy promotes accommodation of social diversity. Hence, most of the countries have shifted to democracy in due course of time.
(24.2) Explain democracy on the basis expected and actual outcome. (2)
Answer: Democracy has failed to ensure economic equality. But causal relationship can be established between economic equality and form of government. Democracy has helped in ensuring equality for women. Yet representation of women in parliaments is not healthy in most of the countries. We can say that democracy has partially succeeded in showing results as per expectations.
Question 25: Describe any three steps taken by the Indian Government towards decentralization of power in 1992.
Answer: Following are the three steps taken by the Indian Government towards decentralization of power in 1992:
Question 26: Describe the implications of First World War on the economic and political situation in India.
Answer: The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure. This was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced to raise extra revenue. Prices of items increased during the war years. The prices doubled between 1913 and 1918. The common people were the worst sufferers because of price rise.
Describe the role of poor peasantry in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.’
Answer: For the farmers, the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues. When the movement was called off in 1931; without the revenue rates being revised; the farmers were highly disappointed. Many of them refused to participate when the movement was re-launched in 1932. The small tenants just wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted. They often joined the radical movements which were led by Socialists and Communists. Congress did not want to alienate the rich landlords and hence, the relationship between the poor peasants and Congress was uncertain.
Question 27: How had Indian trade been beneficial for the British during seventeenth century? Explain.
Answer: During seventeenth century, the East India Company traded mainly in bulk goods, spices and raw materials. This was the period when the Company had yet to gain a monopoly over trade in India. Company developed a system of close cooperation with Rajas and local chieftains to facilitate smooth trade. Raw materials from India provided much needed input to the growing industry in Britain; especially the textiles industry. The consolidation gained during seventeenth century paved the way for a better control for the British on Indian market and Indian territory.
Why did the elite of Britain prefer hand made goods in the mid-nineteenth century? Explain.
Answer: Machine made goods could not match the quality and finish for handmade goods. Hand-made goods were finely crafted and hence were liked the elite class. So, the elite of Britain preferred hand made goods in the mid-nineteenth century.
Question 28: Explain the role of Self Help Groups in the rural economy.
Answer: Most of the people in rural areas do not have assets suitable for mortgage for bank loan. Many people have no documents to establish their credentials. People often require very small amount of loan and serving such low amount cannot be profitable for banks. Self Help Groups help such people by providing small loans and do not ask for collateral. Self Help Groups also instill a culture of discipline when it comes to timely repayment of loans. Thus, Self Help Groups have helped in big way in improving the rural economy.
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