Question 29: Explain the factors which are responsible for location of industries.
Answer: Some of the factors which affect the industrial location are as follows:
Availability of raw materials: Industries are often located in the vicinity of raw materials. For example; iron and steel factories are generally located in the Chhotanagpur Plateau because this region has abundant reserves for iron ore and coal.
Availability of labour: This is an important factor for location of industries. IT sector has boomed initially in Bangalore because this city has good educational institutions which produce qualified and well trained IT professionals.
Availability of capital: Capital is highly important for setting up industry. But capital can move from one place to other. For example; the Tatas were based at Bombay yet started iron and steel plant at Jamshedpur because of availability of raw materials.
Availability of power: No factory can function in the absence of power. Many state governments develop power infrastructure in order to attract industries. Jharkhand has coal mines and hence is ideal for setting up thermal power plants. This factor has helped in developing industries in this state.
Availability of market: Market can be far and wide for most of the industries. But overall demand for a product determines the development of a particular industry. For example; boom in the construction sector has helped in growth of cement industry.
Infrastructure: The example of Jamshedpur shows the importance of infrastructure for industry. When the Tatas opted for Jamshedpur for TISCO factory, this place was situated along the railway line from Calcutta to Bombay. Even today, this place is well connected with major highways and railway network.
Sometimes, industries are located in or near cities. Cities provide markets and also provide services like banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants, etc. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages of an urban centre. Such centre is then called as agglomeration economy.
Explain the ways through which the industrial pollution of fresh water can be reduced.
Answer: Industrial pollution of fresh water can be reduced in following ways:
Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater. It will also help in avoiding wastage of water.
Rainwater harvesting should be promoted. This will help in ensuring better availability of water. It will also help in recharge of groundwater.
Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and ponds. If hot water is released in water bodies, it will end up killing the aquatic plants and animals. Effluents can also kill aquatic plants and animals. It will play havoc with biodiversity of water bodies; leaving the water unfit for human consumption.
Question 30: Describe the necessity of political parties in democratic countries.
Answer: If there were no political party, then each and every candidate would be independent. Current strength of the Lok Sabha is 543. Imagine a situation when none of the 543 members can be brought to think alike on a particular issue. This would lead to a total chaos. An independent candidate would always be more interested in the specific needs of his constituency and would seldom think about the larger interest of the nation. A political party is necessary to bring diverse people on a common platform, so that bigger issues can be taken care of.
The democracy which is being practiced all over the world is called representative democracy. In this system, governance is done through people’s representative because it is impossible for each citizen to directly participate in governance. The need for representative democracy has given rise to political parties.
Describe the efforts to reform political parties in India.
Answer: Following are some of the recent efforts and suggestions in our country to reform political parties and its leaders:
Anti-defection Law: This law was passed during Rajiv Gandhi's Premiership. The law says that if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature. This new law has helped bring defection down. At the same time this has made any dissent even more difficult. MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party leaders decide.
Details of Property and Criminal Proceedings During Nomination: It is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an AFFIDAVIT giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. The new system has made a lot of information available to the public. But there is no system of check if the information given by the candidates is true.
Mandatory Organizational Elections and IT Returns: The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns. The parties have started doing so but sometimes it is mere formality.
Question 31: “Caste can take various forms in Politics.” Explain with examples.
Answer: Caste can indeed take various forms in politics. Some of the examples are as follows:
Most of the political parties keep the caste calculation in mind while fielding a candidate from a particular constituency. Sometimes, this may backfire because all the major political parties may end up fielding candidates from the dominant caste of that constituency.
Each caste group is trying to get a bigger pie of the political power by asserting its identity in various ways. Some political parties are formed in order to promote the interest of a particular caste or a particular group of castes. Bahujan Samaj Party was formed in order to promote the interests of the dalits.
Since there are so many castes, hence various caste groups have also evolved their own coalition to get leverage in political bargaining. The caste groups can be broadly divided into ‘backward’ and ‘forward’. There are many political leaders who have risen on the political scene because of their OBC credentials.
Exclusive attention to caste can produce negative results. Caste divisions often lead to social conflict and even violence.
Question 32: “The impact of globalization has not been uniform.” Explain with examples.
Answer: While globalization has definitely changed the way business is being done in India and people go about their daily life, a large section of population is still to taste the fruit of development. The rich have become richer, but the poor have become poorer. Due to increased competition, many smaller entrepreneurs are unable to survive. Many workers have lost their job due to increased competition. On the other hand, consumers have better choice for almost every product. It can be said that the impact of globalization has not been uniform. Some examples are as follows:
Thums Up was an Indian brand of soft drinks. When Coca Cola came to India (after liberalization), it acquired Thums Up. Today, the maker of Coca Cola is a big company in India but that is not the case with former makers of Thums Up.
Before liberalization, people had very few choices for buying a car. There were just two brands, viz. Ambassador and Padmini. People had to wait for many years to get their turn at buying a car. Today, you can buy a car of your choice almost on the same day and there is plenty of options to choose from.
Copyright © excellup 2014