The process by which a living being produces its offspring is called reproduction.
When a single parent is involved in the process, it is called asexual reproduction. Following means of asexual reproduction are used by plants:
(a) Budding: This method is used by unicellular plants; like yeast. Yeast is a fungus and fungi are also known as non-green plants. The yeast cell produces a bud which gets its own nucleus. The bud develops to certain size and detaches from the mother cell to produce the new yeast.
(b)Fragmentation: In some simple plants, the plant body is divided into smaller fragments. Each fragment then develops into a new plant. Example: Spirogyra.
(c) Spore Formation: Special spore-bearing organs are present in some plants; especially in fungi and algae. These are called sporangiophores. The sporangiophore bears spores. The spores germinate to develop a new plant.
(d) Vegetative Propagation: When a new plant is developed by a vegetative part; such as root, stem or leaf; it is known as vegetative propagation. For example: when the tuber of potato is cut into several pieces and each piece bears an ‘eye’; each piece produces a new plant. The stems of moneyplant, rose, mango, etc. can produce new plants when they are inserted in soil. The leaf of bryophyllum produces new plants through its notches.
Give an example of an organism which reproduces by budding.
How many parents are involved in asexual reproduction?
Answer: Only one
When two parents are involved in the process, it is called sexual reproduction. Two gametes, viz. male and female gametes, are formed. The fusion of male and female gametes is called fertilization. Zygote is formed after fertilization. The zygote develops into an embryo and finally into a new individual.
Flower: Flower is a special organ of flowering plants (angiosperms) which works as the reproductive system. A flower is composed of four distinct whorls.
What is the benefit of colourful petals for plants?
Answer: Colourful petals attract insects, birds and other animals. It helps in cross pollination.
What is the name of the male gamete in a flowering plant?
Answer: Pollen grain
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