Urban Livelihood

NCERT Exercise Solution

What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?

Answer: Sudha gets following benefits along with her salary:

  1. Leaves and holidays
  2. Medical benefits
  3. Retirement benefits
  4. Job security

Read and discuss the following description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk.

Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay Rs 6 a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on any extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans to labourers in need.(Source: Aman Sethi, Hindu On-line)

Answer: Living conditions of workers is very bad. They do not have permanent accommodation. Most of them either sleem on pavements, or in night shelters. The night shelters are usually overcrowded. They are also hubs of drug trafficking and crime.

The belongings and money of daily wage earners are not safe. But some local shopkeepers help them in this regard. The local shopkeepers work as bank and moneylender for them.

Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:

Answer:

NamePlace of WorkEarningsSecurity of WorkBenefits ReceivedWork on their own or employed
Bachuchu ManjhiRoadRs. 100/dayNo securityNo benefitsSelf employed
Harpreet, VandanaShopRs. 30,000/monthSecureNo benefitsWork on their own
NirmalaGarment factoryRs. 200/dayNo securityNo benefitsEmployed
SudhaCompanyRs. 30,000/monthSecureMany benefitsEmployed

In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.

Answer:

Permanent JobCasual Job
Worker gets regular salaryNo regular income.
Leaves and holidays are available.No leave or holiday.
Job security is present.Job is not secure.
Retirement benefits are present.No such benefits.
Better earnings.Poor earnings.

Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.

Answer:

Name of the shop or officeNature of the service provided
ExcelllupOnline education to school students.
Pawan General StoresSells items of daily use.
Shabnam SaloonHair cut
Raj Juice CornerSells fruit juice

EXTRA QUESTIONS

How will you define a city?

Answer: A city is defined as a place where the main occupation of people is not agriculture.

What is the difference between a city and a village?

Answer: A city is much bigger compared to a village. The population of village runs into thousands at the most, while the population of a city can be in millions. While agriculture is the main occupation in village, this is not the case in a city.

What do you understand by government servants?

Answer: People who work for the government are called government servants. Some of them work for the Central Government, while some others work for the State Government.

Explain retirement benefits in a job.

Answer: A part of the salary is saved by the government every month. This money is utilized to provide retirement benefits to employees. When a government servant retires, he gets a big amount of money as one-time payment. Additionally, he also gets monthly pension after retirement. The pension is usually enough to maintain a comfortable life during old age.

Which type of people become daily wage earners?

Answer: People who do not have any skill become daily wage earners.



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