Buildings, Paintings and Books

NCERT Solution:

Match Columns

Column IColumn II
StupaPlace where the image of the deity is installed
MandapaCircular path around the stupa
GarbhagrihaPlace in temples where people could assemble
Pradakshina pathaTower


Fill in the blanks:

  1. ———————— was a great astronomer.

    Answer: Aryabhata
  2. Stories about gods and goddesses are found in the ————————

    Answer: Purana
  3. ———————— is recognised as the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana.

    Answer: Valmiki
  4. ———————— and ———————— are two Tamil epics.

    Answer: Silappadikaram, Manimekalai

Make a list of the chapters in which you find mention of metal working. What are the metals objects mentioned or shown in those chapters?

Answer: Chapters 4, 8 and 9 mention metal working. Various metal tools have been mentioned; like ploughshare, sickle, axe and sword. Ploughshare and sickle were used in farming. Axe was used for chopping wood. Sword was used in battle.

Read the story on page 130 (NCERT Book). In what ways is the monkey king similar to or different from the kings you read about in Chapters 6 and 11?

Answer: The monkey king shows some similarities and some differences with human kings. While many kings assumed grand titles, the monkey king did not have such title. Most of the kings took good care of their subjects. The monkey king shows the same mindset.

Find out more and tell a story from one of the epics.

Answer: Do it yourself (You can tell any story from the Ramayana or Mahabharata)

Extra Questions

The iron pillar near Qutab Minar at Delhi was made by which ruler?

Answer: Chandragupta of the Gupta Dynasty

Which is the highest structure in a temple?

Answer: Shikhara

The stories of the Jataka Tales were written by whom?

Answer: These stories were told by common people and were later compiled.

The Puranas were written in which language?

Answer: Simple Sanskrit

Who usually arranged the money for making temples around 2000 years ago?

Answer: Kings and queens

Give an example of a temple which was carved out of a single stone?

Answer: The temple at Mahabalipuram

Bhagavad-Gita is a part of which epic?

Answer: Mahabharata

Briefly explain the structure of a temple.

Answer: The most important part of a Hindu temple was the garbha griha. The idol of the main deity was placed at this place. The priests performed at this place and the devotees worshipped at this place. A tower was usually built on top of the garbha griha. This was done to mark it as the sacred place. This tower was called the shikhara. Many temples had a big hall; called the mandapam. A large number of people could assemble in this hall.

Briefly explain the structure of a stupa.

Answer: A small box is usually placed at the centre of the stupa. The box may contain the bodily remains of Buddha or his followers. It may also contain precious stones or coins; which may have been used by Buddha or his followers. The box was covered with a layer of soil. Then it was covered with mud bricks or baked bricks. Then it was sometimes covered with carved stone slabs. A pradakshina path was usually made around the stupa. This path is used by the devotees to encircle the stupa in clockwise direction. This is a way of showing respect and devotion. The pradakshina path is usually surrounded with railings. A gateway was also built at the entrance. Beautiful carvings decorate the railings and the gateway.

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