The Early Farmers
- Neolithic Age
- Beginning of Farming
- Invention of Wheel
Neolithic Age: The last phase of the Stone Age is called the Neolithic Age. This phase began about 10,000 years ago. This phase marks a significant change in the life of humans because this is the period when man began farming.
Tools of the Neolithic Age: The tools of the Neolithic Age were much smaller and more refined. Stone was given better shape and some tools were fitted with handles, e.g. spears, axe, sickles, arrows, etc.
|Archaeological Proofs of Farming|
|Sites||Grains and bones|
|Mehrgarh (present day Pakistan)||Wheat, barley, sheep, goat, cattle |
|Koldihwa (Uttar Pradesh)||Rice, fragmentary animal bones|
|Mahagara (Uttar Pradesh)||Rice, cattle (hoof marks on clay surface)|
|Gufkral (Kashmir)||Wheat and lentil|
|Burzahom (Kashmir)||Wheat and lentil, dog, cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo|
|Chirand (Bihar)||Wheat, green gram, barley, buffalo, ox|
|Hallur (Andhra Pradesh)||Millet, cattle, sheep, goat, pig|
|Paiyampalli (Andhra Pradesh)||Black gram, millet, cattle, sheep, pig|
Beginning of Agriculture
The beginning of farming was the most revolutionary development in the human history. This marked the beginning of progress towards a settled life.
Historians guess that farming was first discovered by women. This was possible because women had to live at a place for a longer duration during pregnancy and raising children. While staying at a place for a long duration; women and children may have observed that seeds develop into plants. They may have learnt growing plants after that observation.