Neolithic Age: The last phase of the Stone Age is called the Neolithic Age. This phase began about 10,000 years ago. This phase marks a significant change in the life of humans because this is the period when man began farming.
Tools of the Neolithic Age: The tools of the Neolithic Age were much smaller and more refined. Stone was given better shape and some tools were fitted with handles, e.g. spears, axe, sickles, arrows, etc.
This map shows various Neolithic Age sites in India. They are as follows:
REF: NCERT Textbook
|Archaeological Proofs of Farming|
|Sites||Grains and bones|
|Mehrgarh (present day Pakistan)||Wheat, barley, sheep, goat, cattle|
|Koldihwa (Uttar Pradesh)||Rice, fragmentary animal bones|
|Mahagara (Uttar Pradesh)||Rice, cattle (hoof marks on clay surface)|
|Gufkral (Kashmir)||Wheat and lentil|
|Burzahom (Kashmir)||Wheat and lentil, dog, cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo|
|Chirand (Bihar)||Wheat, green gram, barley, buffalo, ox|
|Hallur (Andhra Pradesh)||Millet, cattle, sheep, goat, pig|
|Paiyampalli (Andhra Pradesh)||Black gram, millet, cattle, sheep, pig|
The beginning of farming was the most revolutionary development in the human history. This marked the beginning of progress towards a settled life.
Historians guess that farming was first discovered by women. This was possible because women had to live at a place for a longer duration during pregnancy and raising children. While staying at a place for a long duration; women and children may have observed that seeds develop into plants. They may have learnt growing plants after that observation.
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