7 Geography

Geography Chapters

Chapter 1: Environment

There is a relationship among living beings and between living beings and non-living things. This relationship makes the ecosystem. In other words, it is the system formed by the interaction of all living organisms with each other and with the physical and chemical factors of the environment in which they live. All the components of an ecosystem are linked by the transfer of energy and material.

Introduction

Natural Environment

Human Environment

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Chapter 2: Inside Our Earth

Sedimentary Rocks: These rocks get their name from the Latin word sedimentum which means settle down. These rocks are formed by the settling down of sediments. Sediments are the smaller particles / fragments that are formed by the breaking down of rocks when they roll down, crack and hit each other. These sediments are transported by wind, water etc. These sediments; when compressed and hardened; form sedimentary rocks.

Interiors of Earth

Rocks and Minerals

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Chapter 3: Our Changing Earth

Seawaves continuously strike at the rocks. This leads to cracks. The cracks become larger and wider overtime. Thus hollow like caves are formed on the rocks. They are called sea caves. As these cavities become bigger and bigger, only the roof of the caves remains, hence forming sea arches. The erosion further breaks the roof and only the walls remain. These wall-like features are called stacks. Sea cliff is the steep rocky coast rising almost vertically above sea water. The sea waves deposit sediments along the shores forming beaches.

Volcanoes Earthquake

Major Lanforms

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Chapter 4: Air

The air that we breathe is a mixture of many gases like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon etc. The majority of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). The other gases that are present in small quantities are: Carbon dioxide (0.03%), Argon (0.93%) and Others ( helium, hydrogen, ozone). Tiny dust particles are also present in the air, apart from the above gases.

Composition of Atmosphere

Weather and Climate

Rainfall NCERT Solution

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Chapter 5: Water

The rhythmic rise and fall of water twice in a day is called a tide. Tides are caused by the strong gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon on the earth’s surface. The rise and fall of water due to tides is used for generating electricity in some places. The water of the earth closer to the moon gets pulled under the moon’s gravitational force and causes a high tide.

Water Cycle

Tides and Ocean Currents

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Chapter 6: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Effect of Altitude on Vegetation: There is a close relationship between the height of land and the character of vegetations. As the height increases we are not able to find the thick jungles of sal and teak. We can find tall trees with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on the mountain slopes. As the height increases further, we can find land covered with short grass and snow.

Evergreen and Deciduous Forests

Grasslands and Coniferous Forests

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Chapter 7: Settlement Transport Communication

As time progressed, human beings became less dependent on nature directly for food, shelter and clothing. The people in the ancient times were nomads. They used to move from one place to another in search of food. They never stayed at one place. They covered themselves with leaves. But with time, man started modifying the environment to fulfill his needs. They started growing food, building homes and developing better means of transport and communication.

Human Settlement

Modes of Transport

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Chapter 8: Tropical Subtropical Regions

The tropics have been historically defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at 23.45° north and south latitude respectively. The literal meaning of the word ‘sub’ is ‘under’. The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the 23.5o and 38o parallels in both hemispheres. Thus, the subtropical regions lie beyond the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn in both hemispheres.

Amazon Rainforests

Ganga Brahmaputra Plain

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Chapter 9: Life in Grasslands

Since the prairies are located in the heart of a continent, the climate is of continental type with extreme temperatures. The summers are warm, with temperatures of around 20oC and winters are very cold with temperatures of around -20oC being recorded in Winnipeg, Canada. In winters, a thick blanket of snow covers this region.

Life in Prairies

Life in Velds

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Chapter 10: Life in Desert

A desert is an arid region characterized by extremely high or low temperatures, low rainfall and scarce vegetation. Water supports life, giving our earth the name ‘living planet’. It is very difficult to live in a place where there is no water to drink, no grass to feed the cattle and no water for the growth of grass. Hence the need to conserve water cannot be overemphasized.

Sahara Desert

Ladakh

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