Administration of Brahmadeya
- Assembly of Brahmadeya
- Eligibility for membership
- Tax collection
- China: Tang Dynasty
An assembly or sabha of popular Brahamana landowners looked after the affairs of the brahmadeya. These worked very efficiently and their decisions were recorded in detail in inscriptions often on stone walls of temples. Occasionally, the administrative functions in towns were performed by associations of traders known as nagarams.
The details of the way in which sabha was organized are given in the inscriptions from Uttaramerur in Chingleput district of Tamil Nadu. The sabha had separate committees to look after irrigation, garden, temples, etc. The names of people who were eligible to become member of the sabha were written in small tickets of palm leaf and these were put in an earthenware pot. A young boy was asked to take out these tickets one by one for each committee.
Eligibility for membership
According to the Uttaramerur inscription, all those who wish to become members of the sabha should
- Be owners of land from which revenue is collected.
- Have their own homes.
- Be between 35 to 70 years of age.
- Have knowledge of the Vedas.
- Be well-versed in administrative matters and honest.
- Have submitted their accounts and those of their relatives.
- Not have been members of any committee in the last three years, for becoming a member of another committee.
The inscriptions of the Chola period refer to more than four hundred terms for different kinds of taxes. The most frequently mentioned taxes are:
- Vetti: Taken not in cash but in the form of forced labour.
- Kadamal: Land revenue
Taxes were levied also on thatching the house and ladder usage to climb palm trees. Cess was levied on succession to family property etc.
An empire was established under the Tang dynasty in China during the period from the seventh century to the tenth century i.e. for about 300 years. Its capital was Xi'an which was one of the largest cities in the world. It was visited by Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Turks and Iranians.
The administration of the empire was done by a bureaucracy recruited through an examination which was open to all. Till 1911, this system of recruitment was in place, with some changes.
- Sultan: It is an Arabic term which means ruler.
- Brahmadeya: The land gifted to brahmanas was known as brahmadeya.
Do You Know?
The land grant given by the Cholas contained the details of:
- Demarcation of the land boundaries
- What the land contains
- Who can collect taxes from the land
- The uses to which the land can be put to