New Kings and Kingdoms
Question 1: What were the activities associated with Chola temples?
Answer: Settlements grew around the temples of the Chola period and hence these became the nuclei of settlements. The temples were endowed with land by rulers as well as by others. The specialists who worked at the temple and often lived near it included priests, garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers, etc. The produce of the land went for their sustenance. Besides being places of worship; temples were the hub of social, cultural and economic life as well. The most distinctive amongst the crafts associated with the temple was the making of the bronze images. The bronze images of the Chola period are considered among the finest in the world. Though most images were of deities, some images of devotees were also made.
Match the columns
|Column I||Column II|
|(1) Gurjara Pratihara||(a) Western Deccan|
|(2) Rashtrakutas||(b) Bengal|
|(3) Palas||(c) Gujarat and Rajasthan|
|(4) Cholas||(d) Tamil Nadu|
Answer: (1) c, (2) a, (3) b, (4) d
Answer the following questions:
Question 2: Who were the parties involved in the tripartite struggle?
Answer: The rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties.
Question 3: What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?
Answer: Delhi and Ajmer
Question 4: How did the Rashtrakutas become powerful?
Answer: They were initially subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief overthrew his Chalukya overlord in the mid-eighth century. He performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha which literally means the golden womb. In this context, the ritual meant ‘rebirth’ i.e. rebirth of the sacrificer as a Kshatriya (even if he was not one by birth) after performing the ritual with the help of Brahamanas.
Question 5: What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?
Answer: For gaining acceptance the new dynasties performed rituals to convert themselves to Kshatriya status. They also shared power with their samantas and associations of peasants, Brahamanas and traders.
Question 6: What kind of irrigation works were developed in the Tamil region?
Answer: Digging of wells and construction of huge tanks to collect rainwater.
Question 7: What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola empire?
Answer: In the Chola empire, all those who wished to become members of the sabha should
- Be owners of land from which revenue is collected.
- Have their own homes.
- Be between 35 to 70 years of age.
- Have knowledge of the Vedas.
- Be well-versed in administrative matters and honest.
- Have submitted their accounts and those of their relatives.
- Not have been members of any committee in the last three years, for becoming a member of another committee.