Mughal Empire

Learning Goals:

Jahangir’s court - Nur Jahan’s influence: Mehrunnisa married the Emperor Jahangir in 1611 and she received the title Nur Jahan. As a reward for her loyalty and support, Jahangir struck silver coins bearing his own titles on one side and on the other the inscription “struck in the name of the Queen Begum, Nur Jahan.” Nur Jahan’s farman (order) has praising and respecting words for her.


Mughal emperors

Babur (1526 - 1530)

Humayun (1530 - 1540 and 1555 - 1556)

Akbar (1556 - 1605)

Jahangir (1605 - 1627)

Shah Jahan (1627 - 1658)

Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707)


Kings and Queens

There were many great monarchs in the sixteenth century in different parts of the world. One of them is the ruler of Ottoman Turkey, Sultan Suleyman (1520-1566). He expanded the Ottoman state into Europe, seizing Hungary and besieging Austria. He also seized Baghdad and Iraq. He also reconstructed the Ottoman navy. The monarch was given the title of ‘al-Qanuni’ i.e. the lawgiver because of the large number of regulations passed during his reign. These regulations were aimed to standardise administrative procedures throughout the empire and these specifically aimed to protect the peasantry from forced labour and extraordinary taxes. His reign was remembered as a period of ideal governance when public order declined in the17th century.


Zat rankings: Nobles with a zat of 5000 were ranked higher than those having a zat of 1000. During Akbar’s reign there were 29 mansabdars having a zat of 5000; the number had increased to 79 during Aurangzeb’s reign.

Mughal Rajpur Marriages: The mothers of Jahangir and Shah Jahan were Rajputs. While the former was a Kachhwaha princess and daughter of the Rajput ruler of Amber; the latter was a Rathor princess (daughter of the Rajput ruler of Marwar).

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