Question 1: What are the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal?
Answer: The temples began to copy the roof styles of the thatched huts which were either double-roofed (dochala) or four-roofed (chauchala). This led to the evolution of the architecture that was of Bengali style.
Four-roofed structures: This is a relatively more complex structure with four rectangular roofs which are placed on the four walls and move up to converge on a curved line or a point. Usually the temples were built on a square platform with a relatively plain interior. The outer walls were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets.
Match the following:
|Column I||Column II|
|(1) Anantavarman||(a) Kerala|
|(2) Jagannatha||(b) Bengal|
|(3) Mahodayapuram||(c) Orissa|
|(4) Lilatilakam||(d) Kangra|
|(5) Mangalakavya||(e) Puri|
|(6) Miniature||(f) Kerala|
Answer: (1) e, (2) c, (3) a, (4) f, (5) b, (6) d
Question 2: What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.
Answer: Manipravalam literally means ‘diamonds and corals’. It refers to the two languages- Sanskrit and the regional language. Lilatilakam is a book written in that language.
Question 3: Who were the major patrons of Kathak?
Answer: The Mughal emperors and nobles. The patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh is also very significant.
Question 4: Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of the heroes?
Answer: Poems and songs which were recited by specially trained minstrels served as a role model for others to follow. Even ordinary people were inspired by these stories which often depicted dramatic situations and a range of strong emotions- from loyalty to anger.
Question 5: Why do we know much more about the cultural practices of rulers than ordinary people?
Answer: We know about rulers by way of poems, songs and miniature paintings. These paintings were preserved in palaces for centuries. On the other hand, since the practices of ordinary men and women were not preserved, there is no concrete source for knowing them.
Question 6: Why did conquerors try to control the temple of Jagannatha at Puri?
Answer: They believed that gaining the control of the temple would help them to gain acceptance among the local people. Hence, conquerors tried to control the temple of Jagannatha Puri.
Question 7: Why were temples built in Bengal?
Answer: To demonstrate the power of powerful individuals and groups. People also built temples to proclaim piety. It also helped the ‘low castes’ to proclaim their status by building temples.