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Class 9 Mathematics

Polynomials

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Introduction of Polynomials

Polynomials = Poly (means many) + nomials (means terms). Thus, a polynomial contains many terms

Thus, a type of algebraic expression with many terms having variables and coefficients is called polynomial.

Example –

class nine math number system polynomial 1

Let us consider third example, class nine math number system polynomial 2 in this ‘x’ is called variable.

Power of ‘x’, i.e. 2 is called exponent.

Multiple of ‘x’, i.e. 2 is called coefficient.

The term ‘2’ is called constant.

And all items are called terms.

Let us consider the second example – class nine math number system polynomial 3

In this there are two variables, i.e. x and y. Such polynomials with two variables are called Polynomials of two variables

Power of x is 2. This means exponent of x is 2.

Power of y is 1. This means exponent of y is 1.

The term ‘5’ is constant.

There are three terms in this polynomial.

Types of Polynomial:

Monomial – Algebraic expression with only one term is called monomial.

Example – class nine math number system polynomial 4

Binomial – Algebraic expression with two terms is called binomial.

Example – class nine math number system polynomial 5

Trinomial – Algebraic expression with three terms is called trinomial.

Example – class nine math number system polynomial 6

But algebraic expressions having more than two terms are collectively known as polynomials.

Variables and polynomial:

Polynomial of zero variable

If a polynomial has no variable, it is called polynomial of zero variable. For example – 5. This polynomial has only one term, which is constant.

Polynomial of one variable –

Polynomial with only one variable is called Polynomial of one variable.

Example – class nine math number system polynomial 7

In the given example polynomials have only one variable i.e. x, and hence it is a polynomial of one variable.

Polynomial of two variables –

Polynomial with two variables is known as Polynomial of two variables.

Example – class nine math number system polynomial 8

In the given examples polynomials have two variables, i.e. x and y, and hence are called polynomial of two variables.

Polynomial of three variables –

Polynomial with three variables is known as Polynomial of three variables.

Example –

class nine math number system polynomial 9

In the above examples polynomials have three variables, and thus are called Polynomials of three variables.

In similar way a polynomial can have of four, five, six, …. etc. variables and thus are named as per the number of variables.

Degree of Polynomials:

Highest exponent of a polynomial decides its degree.

Polynomial of 1 degree:

Example: 2x + 1

In this since, variable x has power 1, i.e. x has coefficient equal to 1 and hence is called polynomial of one degree.

Polynomial of 2 degree –

Example: class nine math number system polynomial 10

In this expression, exponent of x in the first term is 2, and exponent of x in second term is 1, and thus, this is a polynomial of two(2) degree.

To decide the degree of a polynomial having same variable, the highest exponent of variable is taken into consideration.

Similarly, if variable of a polynomial has exponent equal to 3 or 4, that is called polynomial of 3 degree or polynomial of 4 degree respectively.

Important points about Polynomials:

A polynomial can have many terms but not infinite terms.

Exponent of a variable of a polynomial cannot be negative. This means, a variable with power - 2, -3, -4, etc. is not allowed. If power of a variable in an algebraic expression is negative, then that cannot be considered a polynomial.

The exponent of a variable of a polynomial must be a whole number.

Exponent of a variable of a polynomial cannot be fraction. This means, a variable with power 1/2, 3/2, etc. is not allowed. If power of a variable in an algebraic expression is in fraction, then that cannot be considered a polynomial.

Polynomial with only constant term is called constant polynomial.

The degree of a non-zero constant polynomial is zero.

Degree of a zero polynomial is not defined.

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