RESOURCE & DEVELOPMENT
Classification of Resources
1. Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
2. Accumulation of resources in few hands,
3. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.’
Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992
In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit. The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socioeconomic development at the global level. The assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.
Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. It has importance in a country like India, which has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources. There are some regions which can be considered self sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels. The availability of resources is a necessary condition for the development of any region, but mere availability of resources in the absence of corresponding changes in technology and institutions may hinder development. There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but these are included in economically backward regions. On the contrary there are some regions which have a poor resource base but they are economically developed.
Resource Planning in India
Resource planning is a complex process which involves :
(i) identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.
(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
Land resources are used for the following purposes:
2. Land not available for cultivation
(a) Barren and waste land
(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,
(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area),
(c) Cultruable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
4. Fallow lands
(a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
(b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
5. Net sown area
LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA
The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.
Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km Land use data, however, is available only for 93 per cent of the total area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully.
Plain 43% Net Sown Area (NSA) 54% of Plain
LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES
Degraded Land in India 130 million hectares
28% Forest Degraded Area
56% Water Eroded Area
16% Affected by Saline & Alkaline Deposits.
Remedy of Land Degradation:
• Planting of Shelter Belt of Plants
• Control of Overgrazing
• Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes
• Control of Mining Activity
• Proper Discharge of Industrial Effluents & Waste
Factors Contributing to Soil Formation:
• Change in Temperature
• Actions of Running Water
• Actions of Wind and Glaciers
• Activities of Decomposers
Classification of Soils in India:
Property: Alluvial soils are very fertile. Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.
Spread in India: These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems– the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor. Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.
Types of Alluvial Soil: Reaches of the river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the soils are coarse. Such soils are more common in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.
Types as Per Age of Soil:
Bangar Old Alluvial Soil
Khadar New Alluvial Soil
Black Soil (Regur Soil)
Property: The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
Spread: This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. As we move inlands towards the river valleys, soil particles appear some what bigger in size. In the upper Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
Ideal Crop: Cotton hence another name black cotton soil.
Red and Yellow Soils
Property: These soils have red colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it is found in hydrated form.
Spread: Parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
Property: Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. Humus content of the soil is low because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature. Laterite soils are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.
Spread: Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
Crop: After adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques particularly in the hilly areas of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee. Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut.
Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.
These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available. The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes. In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content. The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.
Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation
The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion. The processes of soil formation and erosion, go on simultaneously. Generally there is a balance between the two.
Causes of Soil Erosion:
• Human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining.
• Defective methods of farming.
• Ploughing in a wrong like up and down the slope forms channels makes way for quick flow of water. This leads to soil erosion. way etc. disturb this balance. Natural forces like wind, glacier and water lead to soil erosion.
• Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.
• Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion.
Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
Terrace Farming: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces to restrict erosion. Western and central Himalayas have well developed terrace farming.
Strip Cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.
Shelter Belts: Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and in stabilizing the desert in western India.