Plants are multicellular and autotrophs. Cell wall and chloroplast is present in cells of plants. The Plant Kingdom can be further classified into five divisions. They are as follows:
1: (c) Five, 2: (a) Thallophyta, 3: (a) Thallophyta, 4: (c) Spirogyra, 5: (b) Bryophyta, 6: (c) Pteridophyta, 7: (d) Pteridophyta, 8: (a) Gymnosperm, 9: (b) Angiosperm, 10: (d) Bryophyta, 11: (a) Sycon, 12: (d) One, 13: (c) Platyhelminthes, 14: (b) Sponges, 15: (a) Annelida, 16: (c) Mollusca, 17: (d) Echinodermata, 18: (b) Arthropoda, 19: (a) Protochordata, 20: (c) Protochordata
These plants have the simplest body design. The plant body is simple thallus type. The plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves. They are commonly known as algae. Examples: Spirogyra, chara, volvox, ulothtrix, etc.
Plant body is differentiated into stem and leaf like structure. True roots are absent in these plants. Vascular system is absent, which means there is no specialized tissue for transportation of water, minerals and food. Bryophytes are also known as the amphibians of the plant kingdom, because they need water to complete a part of their life cycle. Examples: Moss, marchantia.
Plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaf. Vascular system is present, which shows evolution over bryophytes. They do not bear seeds and hence are called cryptogams. Examples: Marsilea, ferns, horse tails, etc.
Cryptogams are plants which do not bear seeds. Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta are cryptogams. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms and phaneorgams, i.e. seed bearing plants
They bear seeds. Seeds are naked, i.e. are not covered. The word gymnos means naked and sperma means seed. They are perennial plants. Examples: Pine, cycas, deodar, etc.
The seeds are covered. The word angios means covered. There is great diversity in species of angiosperm. Angiosperms are also known as flowering plants, because flower (a specialized organ meant for reproduction) is present in these plants. Angiosperms are further divided into two groups, viz. monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous.
- Monocotyledonous: There is single seed leaf (cotyledon) in a seed. A seed leaf is a baby plant. Examples: wheat, rice, maize, etc.
- Dicotyledonous: There are two cotyledons in a seed. When you will split open the seeds of pea and chickpea, you will easily see two cotyledons. Examples: Mustard, gram, mango, etc.
Animals are multicellular and heterotrophs. Cell wall and chloroplast are absent in animal cells. The animal kingdom is classified into different phyla. Their detail is given below:
These animals have pores all over their body. The pores lead into the canal system. Water flows through the canal system and facilitates entry of food and exchange of other materials. The animal is not differentiated into tissues. The body is covered with a hard outer skeleton. These are commonly known as sponges. They are marine animals. Examples: Sycon, spongilla, euplectelea, etc.
The body is made up of a coelom (cavity) with a single opening. The body wall is made up of two layers of cells (diploblastic). Some of the species live a solitary life while others live in colonies. Examples: Hydra, Jelly fish, Sea anemone, etc.
The body is flattened from top to bottom and hence the name platyhelminthes. These are commonly known as flatworms. The body wall is composed of three layers of cells (triploblastic). Because of three layers, it is possible to form some organs as well. But a proper ceolom is absent in platyhelminthes and hence proper organs are absent. They are free-living or parasitic animals. Examples: Planaria, liver fluke, tapeworm, etc.
The body is bilaterally symmetric and there are three layers in the body wall. Animals are cylindrical in shape. A pseudocoelom is present and hence organs are absent. Examples: Roundworms, pinworms, filarial parasite (Wuchereria), etc.
True body cavity is present in these animals. The body is divided into segments and hence the name annelida. Each segment is lined one after another and contains a set of organs. Examples: Earthworm, leech, etc.
Animals have jointed appendages which gives the name arthropoda. Exoskeleton is present which is made of chitin. This is the largest group of animals; in terms of number of species. Circulatory system is open, which means blood flows in the coelomic cavity. Examples: cockroach, housefly, spider, prawn, scorpion, etc.
The animal has soft body; which is enclosed in a hard shell. The shell is made of calcium carbonate. Circulatory system is open and kidney like organ is present for excretion. The body has well developed muscular feet for locomotion. Examples: Snail, mussels, octopus, etc.
The body is covered with spines, which gives the name echinodermata. Body is radially symmetrical. The animals have well developed water canal system, which is used for locomotion. Skeleton is made of calcium carbonate. Examples: Starfish, sea urchins, etc.
Animals are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and ceolomate. Notochord is present at least at some stages of life. Notochord is a long rod-like structure which runs along the back of the animal. This provides attachment points for muscles. It also separates the nervous tissues from the gut. Examples: Balanoglossus, herdmania, amphioxus, etc.
Animals have notochord, pharyngeal gill slits and post anal tail; for at least some stages of life. Phylum chordata is divided into many sub-phyla; out of which we shall focus on vertebrata.
In some animals of protochordate, notochord may be present throughout the life. In chordates, notochord is present only during embryonic stage and is later replaced by the vertebral column.