Some major changes took place as a result of October Revolution in Russia. Russia transformed into a single-party ruling system in which the government started to command the economy.
Lenin was apprehensive of imposition of dictatorship by the Provisional Government. On 16 October 1917, he convinced the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotskii to organize the seizure.
1: (c) 1917, 2: (b) Elected council, 3: (a) Three demands made by Lenin, 4: (b) Communist Party, 5: (c) October Revolution, 6: (c) Bolshevik Party did not get majority, 7: (d) Both b and c, 8: (c) 1922, 9: (b) Industrial growth, 10: (a) Red
The uprising began on 24 October. Prime Minister Kerenskii had sensed trouble and hence left the city to summon troops. In the morning, military men loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to take over the telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.
The Military Revolutionary Committee moved swiftly and ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. Later in the day, the ship Aurora shelled the Winter Palace. Various other vessels sailed down the Neva and took over various military points. The city was under the Committee’s control by night and the ministers had surrendered. At a meeting of the All Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd, the Bolshevik action was approved by the majority. By December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd area.
- Most of the industry and banks were nationalized in November 1917. The government took over ownership and management.
- Land was declared social property. Peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
- In cities, large houses were partitioned as per family requirements.
- Old titles of aristocracy were banned.
- A clothing competition was held in 1918; to design new uniforms for the army and officials.
- The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik). Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held in November 1917. The Bolsheviks failed to get majority after this election. The Assembly rejected Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the Assembly in January 1918. Lenin thought that the All Russian Congress of Soviets was more democratic than the Assembly because the Assembly was elected under uncertain conditions.
In March 1918, the Bolsheviks made peace with Germany at Brest Litovsk, in spite of opposition by their political allies. In subsequent years, the Bolsheviks became the only party to participate in the elections to the All Russian Congress of Soviets. The All Russian Congress of Soviets became the parliament of the country.
Russia became a one-party state. Trade unions were kept under party control. The secret police punished those who criticized the Bolsheviks. Many writers and artists; who had earlier rallied behind the party felt disillusioned, because of censorship being imposed by the Bolsheviks.