Short Answer Questions
Question 1: What is stereotype?
Answer: It refers to the belief that people belonging to a particular religion, community, gender, etc. have certain traits and can do only a certain type of work. For example, if a girl or a boy is told to chose a particular subject for higher studies just because of his/her gender and not interest or aptitude, it is called creating a stereotype.
Question 2: Write briefly about the present scenario of schooling and education.
Answer: Many boys and girls attend school today. The literacy rate has gone up but the gap between the education levels of girls and boys still exists. The drop-out rate of girls is very high especially in rural areas. This is due to the circumstances and the attitude of the family and society wherein girls are expected to take care of the house. It is also due to inadequate facilities at school like availability of toilets etc.
Question 3: Describe briefly the opportunities and expectations that existed in the society in the earlier days.
Answer: The opportunities that existed earlier were very limited. Due to the attitude of the people which was of creating a stereotype, girls and boys were expected to study different subjects. Also because of the role that women play at home and the society, certain professions like that of a nurse, are presumed to be more suited for them. And many technical and lucrative jobs like that of scientists and engineers are expected to be taken up by boys. An example of rigid expectation by family is discouraging boys from crying in front of others at an early age itself.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question 1: Arrange the following in the decreasing order of the rate of dropping out of school:(based on the census of 2001and Education Survey of 2003-04) SC/ST girls, Muslim girls, Other girls
Answer: Muslim girls > SC/ST girls > Other girls
Question 2: Define violation.
Answer: It is an act of forcefully breaking the law or openly showing disrespect.
Question 3: What do you mean by the term literate?
Answer: A person is called literate when he/she can at least write his/her name.
Question 4: Define sexual harassment.
Answer: It refers to behavior (either physical or verbal) that is of sexual nature and against the wishes and dignity of a woman.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question 1: What are the reasons of dropping out of school in the case of SC, ST and Muslim communities?
Answer: Following are the reasons for dropping out of school by SC/ST and Muslim communities
- Lack of proper schools and teachers: In many parts of our country especially rural and poor areas proper schools and teachers who teach on a regular basis are not available.
- Inaccessible: If the school is not close to people's homes, and buses or vans are not available for transport, people will not be willing to send their girls to school.
- Unaffordable: Many people are poor and unable to afford the cost of education. In such cases boys are given preference and girls are retained at home.
- Discrimination: Discrimination and resultant harassment by teachers and classmates is also a reason for dropping out. An example is the Dalit writer, Omprakash Valmiki’s experience in his autobiography.
Question 2: Write a note on the strategies used by the women’s movement.
Answer: Following are the strategies used in the women’s movement
- Campaigning: Campaigns to oppose discrimination and seek justice were an integral part of the women's movement.
- Raising awareness: The first step in addressing any issue is to raise public awareness about it. The women’s movement did the same and spread the message through street plays, songs and public meetings.
- Protesting: When any violation against women takes place, the women's movement raises its voice against it. Some popular and effective ways of drawing public attention to injustices are public rallies and demonstrations.
- Showing solidarity: Showing solidarity with other women and causes is also a part of the women's movement. Women hold up candles to show solidarity between the people of our country and Pakistan. Every year, on August 14, many people gather at Wagah border and hold a cultural programme. Candle light vigils to protest against brutal cruelty shown to women are also very common.
Question 3: What is the effect of campaigns in the women's movement?
Answer: The impact of the campaigns is as under
- Passing of new laws: New laws have been passed as a result of the campaigns. In 2006, a law regarding domestic violence was passed. This law gave legal protection to women who faced physical and mental torture at home.
- Guidelines against sexual harassment: In 1997, the Supreme Court passed guidelines to protect women from sexual harassment at workplace and within educational institutions.
- Amendment in dowry laws: In the 1980s, there was a nationwide campaign against dowry deaths. Women groups spoke against the failure to take action against the people responsible for dowry deaths. They took to streets, approached courts, etc. This issue hence gained importance and became an important matter in the newspapers and in the society, hence leading to changes in the dowry laws.