7 Geography

Settlement Transport Communication

Learning Goals:

  • Settlement
  • Permanent settlement
  • Temporary settlement
  • Rural settlement
  • Urban settlement

As time progressed, human beings became less dependent on nature directly for food, shelter and clothing. The people in the ancient times were nomads. They used to move from one place to another in search of food. They never stayed at one place. They covered themselves with leaves. But with time, man started modifying the environment to fulfill his needs. They started growing food, building homes and developing better means of transport and communication.


Settlement

These are places where people build their homes. The early man lived in trees and caves. When the early human beings started agriculture, they had to stay in a permanent home. This is how civilizations developed. The settlements developed near river valleys because of water availability and fertility of land.

Civilizations and the rivers near which they developed
CivilisationRiver
Indus ValleyIndus
HarrappanRavi
EgyptianNile
Tigris - EuphratesTigris

Types of Settlement

  • Temporary or permanent
  • Rural or urban

Temporary Settlement: Settlements that are occupied for a short time are temporary settlements. Examples of temporary settlements are; deep forests, hot and cold deserts, mountains. People living in such temporary settlements practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance.

Permanent Settlement: In these settlements people build homes to live in. Most of the settlements these days are permanent settlements.

Rural Settlement: These comprise of the villages where the people are engaged in agriculture and allied activities. These are of the following types:


  • Compact Settlements: These are closely built area of dwelling wherever flat land is available.
  • Scattered Settlements: These are spaced over an extensive area. This type of settlement is mostly found in hilly areas, thick forests and areas of extreme climate.

The houses are built in rural areas depending on the environment.

  • In regions of heavy rainfall, the houses have slanting roofs.
  • Houses are constructed on a raised platform or on stilts where water logging/accumulation takes place during rains.
  • Areas of hot climate have houses having thick mud walled houses with thatched roofs. Materials available locally like stones, mud, etc. are used to construct houses.

Urban Settlements: These include towns and cities. Towns are small whereas cities are big. The people in the urban areas are engaged in manufacturing, trading and services.


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