What were the offices held by Sa’adat Khan?
Answer: Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan held the combined offices of political (subadari), financial (diwani) and military (faujdari) affairs of the province of Awadh.
Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?
Answer: Doing away with the jagirdari system was a strategy adopted by the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal to reduce the Mughal influence.
How were the Sikhs organized in the 18th century?
Answer: In the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls. These bands were under competent leaders. Their combined forces were called the grand army (dal khalsa).
Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
Answer: Because expansion brought enormous resources to the empire.
What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
Answer: Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India, who welcomed the new opportunities in the south. He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs. Though still a servant of the Mughal emperor, he functioned quite independently without seeking any directions from Delhi or facing any interference. The mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by him.
Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the 18th century?
Answer: The extent of influence of the merchants and bankers on the state was very high in the 18th century. They had a powerful say in politics and administration. In modern times, merchants and bankers hold importance just in the economy. But they do not have such a powerful say in politics and administration.
|Column I||Column II|
|(1) Subadar||(a) A revenue farmer|
|(2) Fauzdar||(b) A high noble|
|(3) Ijardar||(c) Provincial governor|
|(4) Misl||(d) Maratha peasant warriors|
|(5) Chauth||(e) A Mughal military commander|
|(6) Kunbis||(f) A band of Sikh warriors|
|(7) Umara||(g) Tax levied by the Marathas|
Answer: 1-c, 2-e, 3-a, 4-f, 5-g, 6-d, 7-b
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