Mughal Empire

NCERT Solution

What was the role of the zamindar in Mughal administration?

Answer: All the intermediaries; whether they were local village headmen or powerful chieftains were called zamindars. The zamidars exercised great deal of power in some areas and their exploitation by Mughal administrators forced them to rebel against it. These revolts collectively by zamindars and peasants challenged the stability of the empire from the end of the 17th century.

Match Columns

Column IColumn II
(1) Mansab(a) Marwar
(2) Mongol(b) Governor
(3) Sisodiya Rajput(c) Uzbeg
(4) Rathor Rajput(d) Mewar
(5) Nur Jahan(e) Rank
(6) Subadar(f) Jahangir

Answer: 1-e, 2-c, 3-d, 4-a, 5-f, 6-b

Fill in the blanks:

  1. The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half brother was _____.

    Answer: Kabul
  2. The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, _______ and _______.

    Answer: Bijapur and Golconda
  3. If zat determined a mansabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his ______.

    Answer: Military Responsibilities
  4. Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and counsellor, helped Akbar frame the idea of ______ so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.

    Answer: governance based on sulh-i kul

Answer the following questions

What were the Central provinces under the control of the Mughals?

Answer: Agra, Delhi, Chittor, Ranthambor, Qandahar, Kashmir, Kabul and Mewar.

What was the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?

Answer: Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called jagirs. But the same mansabdar served in some other suba.

How were the debates with the religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas of governance?

Answer: The discussions with people of varied religious background helped him understand that the religious scholars were intolerant towards other’s beliefs. They emphasised rituals which were to be followed without any questioning. This led to the idea of sulh-i kul or universal peace; which was the foundation of Akbar’s ideas of governance.

Why did the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mongol descent?

Answer: Their Mongol descent was associated with Genghis Khan who was remembered for the massacre of innumerable people. Since they were proud of Timur’s capture of Delhi, they emphasized their Timurid ancestry.

How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?

Answer: Since the tax on produce of peasantry was the main source of income of the Mughal rulers, it had a crucial impact on the stability of the empire.

Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis?

Answer: Because the empire had expanded to encompass different regions and they had to respect the power and sentiments of other people.

Like the Mughal Empire, India today is also made up of many social and cultural units. Does this pose a challenge to national integration?

Answer: As Jawaharlal Nehru said, India shows unity in diversity. India is a multicultural and multi-religious country. There can be some instances of clash of interests among various social groups but diversity is always good for a society. Thus, it can be said that diversity promotes national integration rather than being a challenge to national integration.

Peasants were vital for the economy of the Mughal Empire. Do you think that they are as important today? Has the gap between the rich and the poor changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals?

Answer: Since India is an agrarian economy, peasants are very important for us even today. A large portion of the Indian population is still employed in agriculture. Agriculture contributes significantly to the GDP of the country. There is great gap between the income levels of the rich and the poor even in the present times.

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