Class 8 Science
Types of Fibres
Natural Fibre: Fibres which are obtained from plants and animals are called natural fibres, e.g. cotton, wool, silk, jute, etc.
Synthetic Fibre: Fibres which are man-made are called synthetic fibres, e.g. nylon, acrylic, etc. A synthetic fibre is made of multiple units of a chemical substance. The units in a fibre are joined together like a chain.
Petrochemicals: Almost all synthetic fibres are made using raw materials from petroleum. Such raw materials which come from petroleum are called petrochemicals.
Polymer: A chain of a particular chemical substance is called a polymer. The individual unit in a polymer is called the monomer. Thus, a polymer is made up of many monomers. All synthetic fibres are polymers. Even cotton is a polymer.
Nylon: Nylon was made in 1931. The term ‘nylon’ has been derived from letters of ‘New York’ and ‘London’. No ingredient from plant or animal source was used in making nylon, as it is made from coal, water and air. Hence, nylon is called the first truly synthetic fibre.
- Nylon is strong, light and elastic.
- It is lustrous and easy to wash.
- Nylon is used in many articles; like socks, bags, toothbrush, rope, sneakers, parachute, etc.
- For the same thickness, a nylon thread is stronger than a steel wire.
Polyester: Polyester is made of repeating units of a chemical called ester.
- Terylene is a popular polyester which is used in dress materials.
- PET (Poly Ethylene Terephthalate) is another example of polyester. It is used for making bottles, utensils, films, wires and many other items.
- Polyester fabrics do not wrinkle easily and are easy to wash.