Similar to other effects; electric current also produces magnetic effect. The magnetic effect of electric current is known as electromagnetic effect.
It is observed that when a compass is brought near a current carrying conductor the needle of compass gets deflected because of flow of electricity. This shows that electric current produces a magnetic effect.
The influence of force surrounding a magnet is called magnetic field. In the magnetic field, the force exerted by a magnet can be detected using a compass or any other magnet.
Fig: Magnetic Field Lines
The imaginary lines of magnetic field around a magnet are called field line or field line of magnet. When iron fillings are allowed to settle around a bar magnet, they get arranged in a pattern which mimicks the magnetic field lines. Field line of a magnet can also be detected using a compass. Magnetic field is a vector quantity, i.e. it has both direction and magnitude.
Direction of Field Line: Outside the magnet, the direction of magnetic field line is taken from north pole to South Pole. Inside the magnet, the direction of magnetic field line is taken from south pole to north pole.
Strength of magnetic field: The closeness of field lines shows the relative strength of magnetic field, i.e. closer lines show stronger magnetic field and vice-versa. Crowded field lines near the poles of magnet show more strength.
A current carrying straight conductor has magnetic field in the form of concentric circles; around it. Magnetic field of current carrying straight conductor can be shown by magnetic field lines.
The direction of magnetic field through a current carrying conductor depends upon the direction of flow of electric current. The direction of magnetic field gets reversed in case of a change in the direction of electric current.
Let a current carrying conductor be suspended vertically and the electric current is flowing from south to north. In this case, the direction of magnetic field will be anticlockwise. If the current is flowing from north to south, the direction of magnetic field will be clockwise.
The direction of magnetic field; in relation to direction of electric current through a straight conductor can be depicted by using the Right Hand Thumb Rule. It is also known as Maxwell’s Corkscrew Rule.
If a current carrying conductor is held by right hand; keeping the thumb straight and if the direction of electric current is in the direction of thumb, then the direction of wrapping of other fingers will show the direction of magnetic field.
As per Maxwell’s corkscrew rule, if the direction of forward movement of screw shows the direction of current, then the direction of rotation of screw shows the direction of magnetic field.
Properties of Magnetic Field:
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