Answer: (a) natural and man-made (b) biotic and abiotic (c) uneven (d) Lithosphere (e) land, water and air (f) ecosystem (g) balance
What is an abiotic factor?
Answer: The non – living elements such as land, air and water are called an abiotic component.
Answer: The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that surrounds the earth.
What are the components of hydrosphere?
Answer: Various sources of water and different types of water bodies such as rivers, lakes, oceans etc. form the hydrosphere.
How did the human beings of the early days fulfill their needs?
Answer: The early humans fulfilled their needs from the nature around them.
List the activities by human beings that lead to a modification of the environment.
Answer: growing of crops, domestication of animals and leading a settled life
Make a list of different uses of water in our daily life.
Answer: washing, cleaning, bathing, cooking, gardening etc.
What do you understand by the term environment? Name its components.
Answer: Place, people, things and the nature that surround us are called the environment. Its major components are natural, human and human made environment.
What are the features of lithosphere?
Answer: Lithosphere is an irregular surface with various landforms such as plateaus, plains, valleys etc. It is found on continents and ocean floors and provides us grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture etc.
What is the role of atmosphere in our lives?
Answer: Atmosphere protects us from the harmful rays and the scorching heat of the sun. Any change in it causes changes in the weather and climate.
What is biosphere?
Answer: It is the narrow zone of the earth where land, water, and air interact with each other to support life. All living beings are found in this zone.
Describe the major components of the environment.
Answer: Major components of environment are; natural environment and human environment.
What do you mean by lithosphere? Describe its characteristics and uses.
Answer: The word lithosphere is derived from the Greek word ‘lithos’ meaning ‘rocky’ and ‘sphaeros’ meaning sphere. Lithosphere consists of the solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil. It is an irregular surface with landforms such as plateaus, mountains, valleys etc. It is found on continents as well as ocean floors. Its uses include land for agriculture, grasslands for grazing, forests, and land for human settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth.
Write a short note on ecosystem.
Answer: The relationship between the organisms (plants, animals & human beings) as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings forms the ecosystem. There could be an ecosystem of a large rainforest, grassland or even a small pond. In other words, it is the system formed by the interaction of all living organisms with each other and with the physical and chemical factors of the environment in which they live, all linked by the transfer of energy and material.
Describe the evolution of human beings with respect to their needs.
Answer: Human beings in the early days led a simple life. They had less needs and adapted to the environment. They fulfilled their needs from the nature around them. With time, their needs increased and became varied. Hence, they started modifying the environment to suit their needs. Some examples of modification of the environment are growing of crops, domestication of animals and leading a settled life. Activities like large scale production, agriculture, invention of the wheel, barter system, trade and commerce have been a part of the evolution of human beings with respect to their needs.
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