What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Answer: Per Capita Income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. Economists agree that income is not the only factor to improve the quality of life. There are many other factors which affect the development, e.g. infant mortality rate, literacy level, healthcare, etc. Hence, it can be said that the criterion used by the World Bank has its own limitations.
In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
Anwer: UNDP uses many other factors which affect the quality of life. This gives due to weight to other criteria; like infant mortality, healthcare, school enrolment, etc. So, the UNDP looks at those factors which help in improving the quality of life and helps in making the citizens more productive.
Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Anwer: Whenever we need to analyse a big sample size, it is difficult to analyse individual data. Hence, it is important to use averages in such cases. Averages have some limitations. Average figure may not reveal the true picture. For example; the per capita income does not show the distribution of income. It does not show the percentage of poor in the population. The per capita income in India has risen significantly over the last two decades but so has the number of poor.
Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Anwer: In spite of being the richest state, Punjab shows a very high child mortality rate compared to Kerala. The net attendance ratio of children in classes 1 to 4 and literacy rate are higher in Kerala; as compared to Punjab. This explains the significantly higher child mortality rate in Punjab. Bihar is fairing badly against all parameters which speaks about its poor record on Human Development Index.
Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Anwer: Firewood is used by a majority of people in rural India. LPG is the main kitchen fuel in urban India. Because of large scale deforestation, availability of firewood would become a big concern fifty years from now. So, we need to find some alternate fuel; like gobar gas for rural India. Solar power is another source which can reduce our dependency on fossil fuels and can give us security against shortage of fuel in the future.
Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Anwer: Development does not only mean securing a better present, but it also means securing a better future for the generations to come. Sustainable development is the development which can be sustained for many years without making undue drain on our resources. Hence, sustainability is an important aspect of development.
“The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the disscusion of development? Discuss.
Answer: This famous quote is from Mahatma Gandhi. We know that the earth has plenty of resources which would outlast our lifetime. But we also need to think about the future beyond our lifetime and we need to think about the future generations. If we go on exploiting our natural resources indiscriminately, then nothing would be left for the future generation. Hence, we should control our greed and take as little from the nature as is really necessary for our needs.
List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Answer: In my city, I can hardly see any greenery. The air quality is so bad, that many people in my neighbourhood suffer from some respiratory problem. The river which flows from the city, looks more like a filthy drain. All of this shows the level of environmental degradation.
Development of a country can generally be determined by
Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
The following table shows the proportion of undernourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
|State||Male (%)||Female (%)|
Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
Answer: People of Kerala get better nutrition than the people of Madhya Pradesh.
Can you guess why around 40 per cent of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
Answer: Some of the possible reasons can be as follows:
For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Answer: Following are the top and bottom ranked countries on various parameters:
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