class ten social science geography resources and development

Resources and Development

Resource: Anything which can be used for satisfying the human needs is called a resource.

Types of Resources:

Resources can be classified on different bases; into following types:

Classification of Resources : On the basis of Origin

  1. Biotic Resources: All living organisms in our environment are called biotic resources. For example, trees, animals, insects, etc.
  2. Abiotic Resources: All non-living things present in our environment are termed as abiotic resources. For example – earth, air, water, metals, rocks, etc.

Classification of Resources: On the basis of Exhaustibility:

  1. Renewable Resources: Resources that can be replenished after a short period of time are called Renewable Resources. For example – agricultural crops, water, forest, wildlife, etc.
  2. Non-renewable Resources: Resources which takes million years of time to replenish are called non-renewable resources. For example – fossil fuel.

Classification of Resources: On the Basis of ownership:

  1. Individual: Resources owned by individuals are called Individual Resources. For example – land owned by farmers, house, etc.
  2. Community: Resources owned by community or society are called Community Owned Resources. For example – Graveyard, grazing land, ponds, burial grounds, park, etc.
  3. National Resources: Resources owned by Individual Nations are called National Resources. For example – Government land, Roads, canals, railway, etc.
  4. International Resources: Resources regulate by International bodies are called International Resources. For example – Ocean and sea beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone and is called open sea or ocean. No individual country can utilize these resources without the permission of International bodies.

Classification of Resources: On the basis of Status of Development:

  1. Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a particular region, but not yet used properly. For example – Rajasthan and Gujarat receive plenty of solar energy and have plenty of wind energy, but use of these resources so far has not been developed properly.
  2. Developed Resources: Resources which are developed and surveyed for utilization and are being used in present time are known as Developed Resources.
  3. Stock: Resources that are available, but we do not have proper technology to used them are called Stock. For example – water is made of oxygen and hydrogen, which can be used as fuel, but because of lack of proper technology these are not being used.
  4. Reserves: Resources which are available and the knowhow to use them is also present but they are yet to be used are called Reserves. For example – river water which is not used to generate electricity.

Discriminate use of Resources

Resources are vital for human beings. But indiscriminate use of resources is creating many problems.


Sustainable Development: Development which takes place without damaging the environment and compromising with needs of future is called sustainable development.

Keeping the view of justified use of resources and sustainable development, the Earth Summit was organized in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro in which more than 100 state heads agreed with Agenda 21 for the sustainable development and proper use of resources.

Agenda 21 is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease, etc. through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.

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