class ten social science economics development



Different persons can have different developmental goals. What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. For example; a dam may be developmental goal for an industrialist, but the same dam can create havoc with the life of people who need to be evacuated in the catchment area.

Different people have different developmental needs. These needs are based on their particular life situations. For example; for a person in a remote village, access to an all weather road can be the developmental goal. On the other hand, for a person living in Delhi or Mumbai; construction of a rapid mass transit system may be the developmental goal.

This creates a need for a development goal which can encompass different needs of different people in a fair way.

Goals of Development:

Per Capita Income: The total income of a country divided by the population is called the per capita income of that country. As per the World Development Report, 2006 the per capital income in India was Rs. 28,000 per annum.

Gross National Product: The total income generated in the country is called Gross National Product.

Gross Domestic Product: The total income generated minus the income generated by exports is called the Gross Domestic Product.

Infant Mortality Rate: The number of children who die before completing one year out of 1000 births is called the infant mortality rate. The lesser figure is a better indicator of development. This is an important parameter as it shows the quality and extent of availability of healthcare in a country. As per 2011 census, the child mortality rate in India is 30.15.

Male to Female Ratio: Number of female per thousand male is called sex ratio. A lesser figure shows society’s aversion to a girl child and worse condition of women in society. As per 2011 census, the sex ratio in India is 940 per thousand male.

Life expectancy: The maximum age up to which an adult lives is called the life expectancy rate. This also shows the overall quality of life in a country. As per 2011 census, the life expectancy in India for males is 67 years and for females it is 72 years.

Literacy Rate: The percentage of literate people is another important indicator of development. Education is a big leveler as it opens newer opportunities for the educated person. Especially in a country like India you can see many examples of a brilliant student coming from a lower class family cracking the IITs. Once you are in IIT then you get a bright and secure future for you and your family. As per 2011 census, the literacy rate in India is 74%.

Infrastructure: Roads, railways, airports, ports and power generation are the lifelines of a nation’s economy. A better infrastructure ensures a better economic activity leading to overall prosperity.

Combination of Goals Needed for Development:

The above mentioned list is not all inclusive but they are more important than other goals which are not mentioned here.

State Per capita income (2003) Infant mortality rate (2003) Literacy rate (2001) Net attendance ratio class 1 to 4 (1995 - 96)
Punjab 26000 49 70 81
Kerala 22800 11 91 91
Bihar 5700 60 47 41

The data given in this table shows some interesting aspects of development. It shows the interrelationship between different aspects of development. When per capita income is compared, Punjab comes as the richest state among the three and Bihar is at the bottom. In spite of being the richest state, Punjab shows a very high child mortality rate compared to Kerala. The net attendance ratio of children in classes 1 to 4 and literacy rate are higher in Kerala; as compared to Punjab. This explains the significantly higher child mortality rate in Punjab. Bihar is fairing badly against all parameters which speaks about its poor record on Human Development Index.

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