class ten social science geography forest and indian wildlife conservation

Forest and Wildlife Resources

The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972: In the 1960s and 1970s, the conservationists demanded some rules to protect the wildlife. Conceding to their demand, the government enacted the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Under this act, an all India list of protected species was published. Hunting was banned to protect the remaining population of some endangered species. Trade in wildlife was restricted and the habitats of wildlife were given legal protection many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries were established by various state governments and the central government. Several projects were announced for protecting specific animals, e.g. Project Tiger.


Benefits of Conservation:

Government's Categorization of Forests:

  1. Reserved Forests: More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forests. These are considered as the most valuable from conservation perspective.
  2. Protected Forests: Almost one-third of the total forest area is protected forest. The protected forests are protected from any further depletion.
  3. Unclassed Forests: Forests which do not come under either of the above two categories are called unclassed forests.

New Trends In Conservation Policy

Increase Biodiversity: The new trend in conservation policy is the focus on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components. So, instead of just focusing on bigger mammals; like tiger and lion, even insects are finding a place in conservation planning. New notifications were issued under Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986. As per them; several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. Six species of plants were added to the list in 1991.


Community and Conservation


PROJECT TIGER

Success Rate
YearTiger Population
19854,002
19894,334
19933,600

Current Status: 27 tiger reserves covering 37,761 sq km.

Important Tiger Reserves: Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand), Sunderband National Park (West Bengal), Bandhavgarh National Park (Madhya Pradesh), Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary (Rajasthan), Manas Tiger Reserve (Assam) and Periyar Tiger Reserve (Kerala)



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