The Earliest Cities


You have read that agriculture is the main occupation in a village. But many other occupations are followed by people in a city. Some of the possible occupations which may have existed in these cities are as follows:


pottery from harappa

Fig: Pottery REF: Wikipedia

priest king mohen jo daro

Fig: Priest King REF: Wikipedia


Trade was the main occupation of people of Harappa. Copper came from Rajasthan and from Oman. Some of the seals from Harappa have been found in Mesopotamia. This shows that trade link existed between Harappa and Mesopotamia.

A dockyard has been discovered in Lothal in Gujarat. This shows that trade through sea route existed at that time. Different types of seals show that proper systems of business transactions were followed.


Remains of charred grains have been found. This shows that wheat, barley, pulses, pea, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard were grown in the villages of the Harappa Civilization.

A toy model of plough has been found from the ruins. This shows that plough was used for tilling the land. Presence of large granaries and huge utensils shows that there was surplus food production at that time.

Bones of many domesticated animals have been found from the excavation site. This shows that people of Harappa domesticated cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig.

Some Other Aspects of Life:

Mystery over Decline of Harappan Civilization

The Harappa Civilization suddenly declined around 3900 years ago. Broken roads and clogged drains indicate towards a decline in infrastructure. Excavations from later period do not show remains of materials from distant places. This shows that the trade from the outside world had stopped. Houses were no longer as good as during the earlier period. People of the city were no longer prosperous.

Historians have not yet identified the proper cause of the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some guesses have been made which are as follows:

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